To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychosis, but affect many other clinical populations. Patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH may differ between diagnostic groups, change over time, and influence clinical outcomes.
We aimed to explore patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH in a young adult clinical population.
35 participants reporting frequent AVH were purposively sampled from a youth mental health service, to capture experiences across psychosis and non-psychosis diagnoses. Diary and photo-elicitation methodologies were used – participants were asked to complete diaries documenting experiences of AVH, and to take photographs representing these experiences. In-depth, unstructured interviews were held, using participant-produced materials as a topic guide. Conventional content analysis was conducted, deriving results from the data in the form of themes.
Three themes emerged:
(1) Searching for answers, forming identities – voice-hearers sought to explain their experiences, resulting in the construction of identities for voices, and descriptions of relationships with them. These identities were drawn from participants’ life-stories (e.g., reflecting trauma), and belief-systems (e.g., reflecting supernatural beliefs, or mental illness). Some described this process as active / volitional. Participants described re-defining their own identities in relation to those constructed for AVH (e.g. as diseased, 'chosen', or persecuted), others considered AVH explicitly as aspects of, or changes in, their personality.
(2) Coping strategies and goals – patients’ self-management strategies were diverse, reflecting the diverse negative experiences of AVH. Strategies were related to a smaller number of goals, e.g. distraction, soothing overwhelming emotions, 'reality-checking', and retaining agency.
(3) Outlook – participants formed an overall outlook reflecting their self-efficacy in managing AVH. Resignation and hopelessness in connection with disabling AVH are contrasted with outlooks of “acceptance” or integration, which were described as positive, ideal, or mature.
Trans-diagnostic commonalities in understanding and self-management of AVH are highlighted - answer-seeking and identity-formation processes; a diversity of coping strategies and goals; and striving to accept the symptom. Descriptions of “voices-as-self”, and dysfunctional relationships with AVH, could represent specific features of voice-hearing in personality disorder, whereas certain supernatural/paranormal identities and explanations were clearly delusional. However, no aspect of identity-formation was completely unique to psychosis or non-psychosis diagnostic groups. The identity-formation process, coping strategies, and outlooks can be seen as a framework both for individual therapies and further research.
This article argues that Carl Orff's Catulli Carmina – a five-movement cantata comprising a selection of Catullus’ Latin poems framed by neo-Latin text written by Orff himself – occupies an ambiguous space within the cultural environment of National Socialism, especially in portraying ideals of contemporary masculinity. In its overt theatrical displays of male and female sexuality, Catulli Carmina invites association with the perceived ‘decadence’ of pre-war cabaret in France and Germany's Weimar Republic. Yet, through tendentious selection and ordering of the poems, Orff's cantata also ‘corrects’ Catullus’ emblematic triviality and erotic abjection in an era which prized productive masculinity as a symbol of the good health of the nation. Orff's motivations in engaging with Roman culture were very different from Nazism's own fetishising of Greco-Roman antiquity, yet in this chapter Catullus provides a surprising case study for demonstrating how Orff's artistic values were often ‘compatible’ with those of the Nazi regime.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.17. The chapter argues that this poem – an elegiac hymn to Bacchus – is at once an ostentatiously closural text for erotic elegy, and a densely allusive text that calls into question the poet’s apparent desire to leave elegy behind. The choice of a Bacchic theme involves the poem in Augustan cultural politics, especially contemporary attempts to reintegrate Bacchus within an Augustan pantheon after the god’s association with Mark Antony in the previous decade. Allusions to Horace’s Bacchic odes and to Virgil Georgic 2 emphasise the way that Propertius 3.17 maintains Bacchus’s transgressive and programmatic aspect, and so offers an ironic celebration of elegy’s independence and potency, even as the elegist declares a desire to abandon the genre.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.16. The chapter argues that Propertius’s hesitation about making and completing a journey towards Cynthia suggests a broader reluctance about reaching the end of the collection as a whole, and the rejection of Cynthia that this will entail. Yet the poem further a sense of erotic closure at the same time: as frequently in Book 3, the poet’s emblematic focus on ‘love’ is displaced now by a greater interest in poetics.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.20. The chapter argues that this poem uses allusion to Catullus, Horace, and to Propertius’s own earlier poetry to expose the insincerity and performative nature of the claim ‘I will be faithful’ made by the literary lover; the poem also exposes the fundamental anonymity and interchangeable naure of elegy’s iconic puella. Together, these twinned themes ought to have closural force, coming so late in a collection of ostensibly erotic verse. Yet the poem’s repeated insistence on a new beginning, even as the end of the collection approaches, ironically suggests the possibility of a reinvention of Propertian love-poetry based on a newly overt awareness of the duplicity of erotic discourse itself.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.24. The final poem of Book 3 emphasises its status as an ending by claiming to dismiss Cynthia and resolving the early programmatic tensions of Propertian love-elegy. Yet this chapter argues that Propertius thereby creates a paradoxical tension between ending and failing to end. The Propertian narrator is ostensibly sincere in his claim to have been freed from love's delusions, yet an experienced reader of love-poetry will recognise such a claim by a lover to be yet more delusion, since the language of erotic closure is also the language of erotic 'false' closure. Propertius's renuntiatio amoris ('rejection of love') is coloured allusively by Catullus's failed attempts to move beyond his love for Lesbia. The way in which a reader might 'mis-read' Propertius's claim to reject love is further suggested by Ovid's allusive engagement with Propertius 3.24 – for Ovid, this Propertian moment is a flamboyant signal of the imminent resumption of erotic desire.
Propertius re-invents Latin love-elegy in his third collection. Nearly a decade into the Augustan principate, the early counter-cultural impulse of Propertius' first collections was losing its relevance. Challenged by the publication of Horace's Odes, and by the imminent arrival of Virgil's Aeneid, in 23 BCE Propertius produced a radical collection of elegy which critically interrogates elegy's own origins as a genre, and which directly faces off Horatian lyric and Virgilian epic, as part of an ambitious claim to Augustan pre-eminence. But this is no moment of cultural submission. In Book 3, elegy's key themes of love, fidelity, and political independence are rebuilt from the beginning as part of a subtle critique of emerging Augustan mores. This book presents a series of readings of fourteen individual elegies from Propertius Book 3, including nostalgic love poems, an elegiac hymn to Bacchus, and a lament for Marcellus, the recently-dead nephew of Augustus.
This chapter presents a sequential reading of Propertius 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3. The chapter argues that this opening sequence advertises a newly confident identity for Roman elegy which inverts elegy’s ‘traditional’ hierarchy between Amor and Roma. These opening poems also establish two fundamental programmes for Book 3. First, Propertius competitively engages his direct contemporaries Virgil and Horace, seeking to place elegy alongside epic and lyric as a principal Augustan genre. Second, Propertius looks back critically at his own early erotic verse, seeking to give renewed relevance to the persona of the elegiac lover by positioning this persona (and the poetry that houses it) now inclusively in a contemporary social context. Finally these poems foreground a tension that will continue right through the collections between elegy’s proposed new direction and a nostalgia for the way elegy used to be.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.12. The chapter argues that Propertius uses the centre of Book 3 (3.12 is the first poem of the Book’s second half) to present a rearticulation of elegy’s puella. In one sense, the poem presents its central female character as the antithesis of Propertius’s own Cynthia: Galla in 3.12 is married and faithful, and the poem’s celebration of traditional morality continues the inclusion of ‘Augustan’ themes in the Book’s central sequence. In other sense, the poem foregrounds the qualities elegy had always desired of its puella: Galla proves not the antithesis of Cynthia but an idealised Cynthia instead. Furthermore, an intertextual dialogue with Horace Odes 3.7 (the ‘Asterie’ ode) furthers competition between lyric and elegy for ownership of the theme of erotic fides (‘good faith’).
This chapter presents an epilogue for the monograph in the form of a brief reading of Propertius 3.22. The epilogue argues that in 3.22 Propertius presents the culmination of a programme in Book 3 to reinvent elegiac amor as a poetic theme with overt social capacity. An address to his former patron Tullus links this poem with Book 1, where love had been a signature point of distinction between elegiac indolence and patriotic duty; now Propertius reworks elegiac amor as married love, and so as the epitome of Augustan patriotism. 3.22 also presents the resolution of Propertius’s engagement in Book 3 with the contemporary poetry of Horace and Virgil: a reinvented elegiac voice seemingly surpasses the ethical tone of Horatian lyric and the celebration of Augustan clemency at the heart of the Aeneid.
This chapter presents a reading of Propertius 3.18. The chapter argues that this poem, in its ambiguous lament for Marcellus, foreshadows the mature but still oblique ‘public’ elegy that will emerge more fully-formed in Propertius Book 4. The poem has two metapoetic stands. First, an intratextual engagement with Propertius 1.11 comments on the way that increasing incorporation of Augustan material has displaced ‘Cynthia’ as the focus of the poet’s attention. Second, an intertextual dialogue with Virgil’s lament for Marcellus in Aeneid 6 allows Propertius to use the occasion provided by Marcellus’s death to unmask Marcellus as a pawn in Augustus’s early attempt to establish what we now know as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. 3.18 is both evidence of elegy’s new public capacity and yet of the genre’s commitment to socio-political critique.
This chapter presents a reading of the theme of elegiac/erotic fides (fidelity) in Propertius 3.6. The chapter argues that this poem – by using a conceit derived from Roman comedy in which a slave (Lygdamus) acts as a go-between for the lover and his mistress – invites a metapoetic interpretation in which the narrating slave acts as surrogate for the poet/text, while Propertius himself occupies a position analogous to that of a reader of elegy. WIthin this system the poem suggests a synergy between the ‘fides’ – the ‘good faith’ – expected by lovers of each other, and that expected of a text by its reader; the poem suggests that lovers and readers alike are willing to let themselves be deceived in the pursuit of erotic or literary pleasure.
This chapter presents a sequential reading of Propertius 3.9, 3.10, and 3.11. The chapter argues that these poems begin a central sequence within Book 3 in which novel and particularly Augustan themes are prominent. The chapter argues further that Propertius uses these poems to offer metapoetic commentary on the evolving nature of elegy’s genre-identity, and especially on the disruptive and destabilising potential of the new thematic inclusions. In 3.9, a request from Maecenas for an Augustan epic represents an apparent imperative for the private elegist to include more public material, yet the poem (via allusions to precedents in Horace and Virgil) hedges between rejecting and acceding to the demand. In 3.10, a birthday poem for Cynthia seem to indulge a fantasy about singular erotic focus of Propertian elegy in its early poems, and yet implies that Cynthia – as elegy’s subject and surrogate – can never be held in stasis. 3.11 presents an elegiac Cleopatra, a figure in whom the ‘disgraceful’ servitium of the erotic elegist and the celebrated success of Augustan conquest come together; the poem seeks to embrace both these positions, and yet never resolves the tension between them.