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This seventh volume of The Cambridge History of Judaism provides an authoritative and detailed overview of early modern Jewish history, from 1500 to 1815. The essays, written by an international team of scholars, situate the Jewish experience in relation to the multiple political, intellectual and cultural currents of the period. They also explore and problematize the 'modernization' of world Jewry over this period from a global perspective, covering Jews in the Islamic world and in the Americas, as well as in Europe, with many chapters straddling the conventional lines of division between Sephardic, Ashkenazic, and Mizrahi history. The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative work in this field currently available, this volume will serve as an essential reference tool and ideal point of entry for advanced students and scholars of early modern Jewish history.
To describe covariates and patterns of late-life analgesic use in the rural, population-based MoVIES cohort from 1989 to 2002.
Secondary analysis of epidemiologic survey of elderly people conducted over six biennial assessment waves. Potential covariates of analgesic use included age, gender, depression, sleep, arthritis, smoking, alcohol, and general health status. Of the original cohort of 1,681, this sample comprised 1,109 individuals with complete data on all assessments. Using trajectory analysis, participants were characterized as chronic or non-chronic users of opioid and non-opioid analgesics. Multivariable regression was used to model predictors of chronic analgesic use.
The cohort was followed for mean (SD) 7.3 (2.7) years. Chronic use of opioid analgesics was reported by 7.2%, while non-opioid use was reported by 46.1%. In the multivariable model, predictors of chronic use of both opioid and non-opioid analgesics included female sex, taking ≥2 prescription medications, and “arthritis” diagnoses. Chronic opioid use was also associated with age 75–84 years; chronic non-opioid use was also associated with sleep continuity disturbance.
These epidemiological data confirm clinical observations and generate hypotheses for further testing. Future studies should investigate whether addressing sleep problems might lead to decreased use of non-opioid analgesics and possibly enhanced pain management.
Q: Which is preferable – the antisemite or the philosemite?
A: The antisemite. At least he isn't lying.
Is there such a thing as philosemitism? The concept is often met with skepticism, as this characteristically terse Jewish joke exemplifies. The term is certainly an awkward one, and it has an awkward history. Coined in Germany in 1880 as the antonym to another neologism – antisemitism – the word “philosemitism” was invented by avowed antisemites as a sneering term of denunciation for their opponents. Almost all late nineteenth-century opponents of antisemitism strenuously sought to defend themselves from the charge of philosemitism, insisting instead that they regarded the Jews neutrally and were untainted by prejudice either for or against them. This normalization of attitudes toward Jews has remained the aim of almost all liberal engagements in the field of Jewish–non-Jewish relations, both by Jews and by non-Jews, and from this dominant perspective philosemitism is almost always regarded as deeply suspicious, sharing with antisemitism a trafficking in distorted, exaggerated, and exceptionalist views of Jews and Judaism. Taking these distortions as the essential hallmark of antisemitism, it has seemed reasonable to many to regard philosemitism as a counterfeit benevolence, and philosemites, as Daniel Goldhagen has described them, as “antisemites in sheep's clothing.”
Yet this negative assessment of philosemitism is itself one-sided and prejudicial. Since the period of antiquity favorable characterizations of the Jewish people have recurrently formed a quiet counterpoint to the more familiar hostile stereotypes.
Too often philosemitism, the idealization of Jews and Judaism, has been simplistically misunderstood as merely antisemitism in sheep's clothing. This book takes a different approach, surveying the phenomenon from antiquity to the present day, and highlighting its rich complexity and broad impact on Western culture. Philosemitism in History includes fourteen essays by specialist historians, anthropologists, literary scholars and scholars of religion, ranging from medieval philosemitism, to such modern and contemporary topics as the African American depiction of Jews as ethnic role models, the Zionism of Christian evangelicals, pro-Jewish educational television in West Germany, and the current fashion for Jewish kitsch memorabilia in contemporary East-Central Europe. An extensive introductory chapter offers a thorough and original overview of the topic. The book underscores both the endurance and the malleability of philosemitism, drawing attention to this important, yet widely neglected, facet of Jewish - non-Jewish relations.