Rove beetle species and their pitfall trap abundance were studied in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.; Pinaceae) stands in the Acadia Research Forest, New Brunswick, Canada, in 1999. The study yielded over 5000 specimens representing 134 species in 11 subfamilies of Staphylinidae. Of these, 58 species represent new distribution records for New Brunswick (NPR), including 15 new distribution records for Canada (NCR), 6 new species, and 4 synonyms, as follows: Omaliinae, 3 species; Proteininae, Proteinus pseudothomasi Klimaszewski sp. nov. (NCR, NPR) and P. acadiensis Klimaszewski sp. nov. (NCR, NPR); Tachyporinae, 3 species; Trichophyinae, 1 species; Aleocharinae, 33 species, including Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski sp. nov., A. brunswickensis Klimaszewski sp. nov., A. pseudocrenuliventris Klimaszewski sp. nov., Oxypoda lacustris Casey (NPR) [= O. bradorensis Lohse syn. nov., O. egestosa Casey syn. nov., O. lassula Casey syn. nov., and O. optiva Casey syn. nov.], and Pella gesneri Klimaszewski sp. nov.; Oxytelinae, 3 species; Paederinae, 3 species; and Staphylininae, 10 species. The new species or known species representing new records for Canada are presented here with a short diagnosis, habitus images, and genital illustrations to help with identification. The habitus images and most genital illustrations are presented here for the first time for these species.