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Residual herbicides applied PRE provide early season weed control, potentially avoid the need for multiple POST herbicides, and can provide additional control of herbicide-resistant weeds. Thus, field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Concord, NE, to evaluate the influence of PRE herbicides on critical time for postemergence weed removal (CTWR) in corn. The studies were arranged in a split-plot design that consisted of three herbicide regimes as main plot treatments and seven weed removal timings as subplot treatments in four replications. The herbicide regimes included no PRE herbicide, atrazine, and a premix of saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P mixed with pyroxasulfone. The weed removal timings were at V3, V6, V9, V12, and V15 corn growth stages and then plots were kept weed-free until harvest. A weed-free and nontreated control were included for comparison. The relationship between corn growth or yield, and weed removal timings in growing degree days (GDD) was described by a four-parameter log-logistic model. This model was used to estimate the critical time for weed removal based on 5% crop yield loss threshold. A delay in weed removal until the V2 to V3 corn growth stage (91 to 126 GDD) reduced corn biomass by 5% without PRE herbicide application. The CTWR started at V3 without PRE herbicide in both years. Atrazine delayed the CTWR up to V5 in both years, whereas saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P plus pyroxasulfone further delayed the CTWR up to the V10 and V8 corn growth stages in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Herbicide applied PRE particularly with multiple sites of action can delay the CTWR in corn up to a maximum growth stage of V10, and delay or reduce the need for POST weed management.
A novel CBT-based intervention, tailored for young people, was developed in response to concerns about traditional diagnostically based approaches. Psychology of Emotions workshops use a normative approach to emotional difficulty instead of a diagnostic framework.
To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of Psychology of Emotions workshops within an IAPT service for young people aged 16–25 years.
This was a mixed-methods study, evaluating routinely collected self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and qualitative feedback forms. The main outcomes were rates of attendance, change in symptom severity, and participant views of the intervention.
From January to September 2016, 595 young people were invited to attend the Psychology of Emotions workshops, of whom 350 (58.8%) attended at least one session. Young people who attended all six sessions (8.1%) experienced significant reductions in self-reported anxiety (d = .72) and depression (d = .58) and 35.5% were classified as recovered at completion. Those who attended at least two sessions (41.3%) reported smaller but significant improvements in anxiety (d = .42) and depression (d = .45); 22.0% were classified as recovered at the last session attended. Participants provided largely positive feedback about the intervention.
Psychology of Emotions is a promising treatment option, delivered outside of a diagnostic framework, for young people with mild to moderate mental health difficulties seen within IAPT services. Better understanding reasons for non-attendance might enable the intervention to be made accessible to more young people.
Widespread and repeated use of glyphosate resulted in an increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. This led to an urgent need for diversification of weed control programs and use of PRE herbicides with alternative sites of action. Field experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period (2015 to 2018) across three locations in Nebraska to evaluate the effects of PRE-applied herbicides on critical time for weed removal (CTWR) in GR soybean. The studies were laid out in a split-plot arrangement with herbicide regime as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. The herbicide regimes used were either no PRE or premix of either sulfentrazone plus imazethapyr (350 + 70 g ai ha−1) or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus pyroxasulfone (26 + 70 + 120 g ai ha−1). The weed removal timings were at V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 soybean stages, with weed-free and weedy season-long checks. Weeds were removed by application of glyphosate (1,400 g ae ha−1) or by hoeing. The results across all years and locations suggested that the use of PRE herbicides delayed CTWR in soybean. In particular, the CTWR without PRE herbicides was determined to be around the V1 to V2 (14 to 21 d after emergence [DAE]) growth stage, depending on the location and weed pressure. The use of PRE-applied herbicides delayed CTWR from about the V4 (28 DAE) stage up to the R5 (66 DAE) stage. These results suggest that the use of PRE herbicides in GR soybean could delay the need for POST application of glyphosate by 2 to 5 wk, thereby reducing the need for multiple applications of glyphosate during the growing season. Additionally, the use of PRE herbicides could provide additional modes of action needed to manage GR weeds in GR soybean.
Shack–Hartmannwavefront sensors using wound fibre image bundles are desired for multi-object adaptive optical systems to provide large multiplex positioned by Starbugs. The use of a large-sized wound fibre image bundle provides the flexibility to use more sub-apertures wavefront sensor for ELTs. These compact wavefront sensors take advantage of large focal surfaces such as the Giant Magellan Telescope. The focus of this paper is to study the wound fibre image bundle structure defects effect on the centroid measurement accuracy of a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. We use the first moment centroid method to estimate the centroid of a focused Gaussian beam sampled by a simulated bundle. Spot estimation accuracy with wound fibre image bundle and its structure impact on wavefront measurement accuracy statistics are addressed. Our results show that when the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is high, the centroid measurement accuracy is dominated by the wound fibre image bundle structure, e.g. tile angle and gap spacing. For the measurement with low signal-to-noise ratio, its accuracy is influenced by the read noise of the detector instead of the wound fibre image bundle structure defects. We demonstrate this both with simulation and experimentally. We provide a statistical model of the centroid and wavefront error of a wound fibre image bundle found through experiment.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Across the western world, social theorists and commentators tell us that everyday life has become selfish and atomised; that individuals live only to consume; that ideas of community and social solidarity have lost their purchase. Influential social theorists like Zygmunt Bauman argue that we have entered a new age of ‘Liquid Modernity’ in which we have all been reduced to isolated individuals obsessed by our ‘solitary individual fears’ (Bauman, 2000). Similarly, Robert Putnam has captured the attention of politicians and policymakers worldwide with his bleak assessment of social fragmentation, of a world where everyone goes ‘bowling alone’ (Putnam, 2000). In Britain, we are surrounded by talk of the collapse of community and the broken society, and by think tanks and government departments constantly hatching new ways to rebuild what they have come to call our social capital. From both left and right, people argue that to halt this inexorable slide towards social disintegration we need to breathe new life into collective identities such as community and class, which supposedly once acted as a bulwark against the tide of selfish individualism. Political projects like Philip Blond's ‘red Toryism’ and Maurice Glasman's ‘blue Labour’ offer explicitly backward-looking programmes that champion the revival of face-to-face community as an alternative to the fragmentation they attribute to modern-day liberal individualism (Blond, 2010; Glasman et al, 2011). More radical voices call for the revival of class politics as the only way to halt our inexorable slide towards an atomised, freemarket dystopia (Jones, 2011; Dorling, 2014).
But we should be wary. The social transformations of the past half century have brought enormous gains in terms of personal freedom. The social pressure to conform to external norms of behaviour – the pressure, as Jeanette Winterson puts it, to be normal rather than happy – has weakened across the western world (and beyond) in the past half century, eroded both from within and without (Winterson, 2011): from without, by increased mobility, new mass media and the hollowing out of patrician power in state and church, and from within, by rising expectations of life driven by direct personal experience – by people seeing others forge lives not just different from, but palpably better than, the life proscribed by custom and habit (Hoggart, 1995).
The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica — the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmKdark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the Kdark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.
The Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey will be the first comprehensive exploration of the time varying Universe in the infrared. A key feature in optimising the scientific yield of this ambitious research programme is the choice of the survey passband. In particular, the survey aims to maximally exploit the unique thermal and atmospheric conditions pertaining to the high Antarctic site. By simulating the expected signal-to-noise for varying filter properties within the so-called ‘K DARK’ 2.4 μm window, filter performance can be tuned and best-case designs are given covering a range of conditions.
This article examines surviving notes from interviews conducted by Michael Young and Peter Willmott in the London Borough of Bethnal Green and the Essex ‘overspill’ estate of ‘Greenleigh’ (Debden) in the mid-1950s to ask how far they support the central arguments about kinship, community, and place advanced in their classic 1957 book Family and kinship in East London. These interviews are used to suggest that Young and Willmott's powerful a priori models about ‘community’ and working-class kinship, and their strong political investment in the idea of a decentralized social democracy based on self-servicing, working-class communities, led them to discount testimony which ran counter to their assumptions as ‘aberrant’ or ‘exceptional’. Though it is difficult to draw strong conclusions from thirty-seven interviews, it is suggested that the snippets of personal testimony that survive in Michael Young's papers reinforce the arguments of historians who seek to question cataclysmic accounts of the consequences of working-class suburbanization in the mid-twentieth century. Culture and lifestyle changed much less with the move out to suburban Essex than Family and kinship would suggest, partly because Bethnal Green's family and neighbourhood networks were considerably less cohesive than they claimed.
Radar observations are a powerful technique to study near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Goldstone's 3.75 m resolution capability is invaluable when attempting to image NEAs with diameters smaller than 140 m. The small NEAs are a very diverse population in which we continue to discover unusual objects.
Episodic memory deficits are a core feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Muscarinic M1 receptors play a critical role in modulating learning and memory and are highly expressed in the hippocampus. We examined the effect of GSK1034702, a potent M1 receptor allosteric agonist, on cognitive function, and in particular episodic memory, in healthy smokers using the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 20 male nicotine abstained smokers were tested following single doses of placebo, 4 and 8 mg GSK1034702. Compared to the baseline (nicotine on-state), nicotine abstinence showed statistical significance in reducing immediate (p=0.019) and delayed (p=0.02) recall. GSK1034702 (8 mg) significantly attenuated (i.e. improved) immediate recall (p=0.014) but not delayed recall. None of the other cognitive domains was modulated by either nicotine abstinence or GSK1034702. These findings suggest that stimulating M1 receptor mediated neurotransmission in humans with GSK1034702 improves memory encoding potentially by modulating hippocampal function. Hence, selective M1 receptor allosteric agonists may have therapeutic benefits in disorders of impaired learning including Alzheimer's disease.
When Margaret Thatcher became leader of the Conservative Party in 1975, British public discourse remained heavily stamped by the impress of social class. Indeed, arguably ‘languages of class’ were more ubiquitous in the 1970s than they had been a decade earlier. In the 1960s, Wilson’s shrewd campaign against the Conservatives’ ‘thirteen wasted years’ had traded heavily on a classless populism. In the anti-establishment rhetoric of Wilson’s proposed technocratic revolution, the rule of the privileged ‘classes’ was to give way to a new meritocracy capable of reversing Britain’s relative economic decline. Reworking earlier tropes about the unity of workers ‘by hand and by brain’, Labour tapped into the new managerial, ‘technicist’ strand in post-war thinking to proclaim that a ‘New Britain’ could be built from a production-centred alliance of planners, technicians and workers. The political rhetoric of the mid 1970s was very different. Left-wingers like Michael Meacher looked forward to ‘the coming class struggle’ and argued that only ‘class politics’ could deliver the ‘radical political change’ that Britain needed. Writing in December 1976, Robert Kilroy-Silk (of all people) declared ‘there must be no truce in the class war’; ‘the Labour Party’, he insisted, ‘is a class party. God help us when it ceases to be so. It is a class party because it was formed by and for the working class to protect and advance its interests.’ True, more mainstream Labour figures generally avoided such explicit appeals to class feeling, but the tone of their pronouncements was nonetheless more conflictual than a decade earlier. Not only did the two election manifestos of 1974 place the defence of workers’ rights and interests centre-stage, but during the February campaign Denis Healey famously declared that the party would ‘squeeze property speculators until the pips squeak’ (that political mythology quickly translated this into the more generalised pledge to ‘squeeze the rich’ tells us much about the febrile social and political context in which Thatcher emerged as Conservative Party leader).
At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R) and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the 2009, and 2011 winter seasons and part-way through the 2010 season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter-time dataset (2009) returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.
HRCAM (High Resolution CAMera) is a Canon 50D 15-megapixel digital SLR camera equipped with a Sigma 4.5 mm f/2.8 fish-eye lens. It was installed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau in January 2010 and photographs the sky every 15 minutes. Primarily functioning as a site-testing instrument, data obtained from HRCAM provide valuable statistics on cloud cover, sky transparency and the distribution and frequency of auroral activity. We present a first look at data from HRCAM during 2010, including an overview of how we intend to reduce the images. We also demonstrate the potential of stellar photometry by using linear combinations of the in-built Canon RGB filters to convert instrumental magnitudes into the photometric BVR bands.
Despite the absence of artificial light pollution at Antarctic plateau sites such as Dome A, other factors such as airglow, aurorae and extended periods of twilight have the potential to adversely affect optical observations. We present a statistical analysis of the airglow and aurorae at Dome A using spectroscopic data from Nigel, an optical/near-IR spectrometer operating in the 300–850 nm range. The median auroral contribution to the B, V and R photometric bands is found to be 22.9, 23.4 and 23.0 mag arcsec−2 respectively. We are also able to quantify the amount of annual dark time available as a function of wavelength; on average twilight ends when the Sun reaches a zenith distance of 102.6°.
First identified in 2009 as the site with the lowest precipitable water vapour (PWV) and best terahertz transmission on Earth, “Ridge A” is located approximately 150 km south of Dome A, Antarctica. We use three years of data from the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) on the NOAA-18 satellite and recent ground-based measurements from Ridge A to probe the PWV variations and stability over the high Antarctic plateau.
While the summit of the Antarctic Plateau has long been expected to harbor the best ground-based sites for terahertz (THz) frequency astronomical investigations, it is only recently that direct observations of exceptional THz atmospheric transmission and stability have been obtained. These observations, in combination with recent technological advancements in astronomical instrumentation and autonomous field platforms, make the recognition and realization of terahertz observatories on the high plateau feasible and timely. Here, we will explore the context of terahertz astronomy in the era of Herschel, and the crucial role that observatories on the Antarctic Plateau can play. We explore the important scientific questions to which observations from this unique environment may be most productively applied. We examine the importance and complementarity of Antarctic THz astronomy in the light of contemporary facilities such as ALMA, CCAT, SOFIA and (U)LDB ballooning. Finally, building from the roots of THz facilities in Antarctica to present efforts, we broadly highlight future facilities that will exploit the unique advantages of the Polar Plateau and provide a meaningful, lasting astrophysical legacy.
Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:72–78)