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Peltigera globulata Miadl. & Magain, a new species in the P. ponojensis/monticola species complex of section Peltigera, is formally described. This clade was previously given the interim designation Peltigera sp. 17. It is found in sun-exposed and xeric habitats at high altitudes in Peru and Ecuador. Peltigera globulata can be easily recognized by its irregularly globulated margins covered mostly by thick, white pruina, somewhat resembling the sorediate thallus margins of P. soredians, another South American species from section Peltigera. The hypervariable region of ITS1 (ITS1-HR), which is in general highly variable among species of section Peltigera, does not have diagnostic value for species identification within the P. ponojensis/monticola complex. Nevertheless, no significant level of gene flow was detected among eight lineages representing a clade of putative species (including P. globulata) within this complex. ITS sequences from the holotype specimens of P. monticola Vitik. (collected in 1979) and P. soredians Vitik. (collected in 1981) and lectotype specimens of P. antarctica C. W. Dodge (collected in 1941) and P. aubertii C. W. Dodge (collected in 1952) were successfully obtained through Sanger and Illumina metagenomic sequencing. BLAST results of these sequences revealed that the type specimen of P. monticola falls within the P. monticola/ponojensis 7 clade, which represents P. monticola s. str., and confirmed that the type specimen of P. aubertii falls within a clade identified previously as P. aubertii based on morphology. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. soredians, which superficially resembles P. globulata, confirms its placement in the P. rufescens clade. Finally, we discovered that the name P. antarctica was erroneously applied to a lineage in the P. ponojensis/monticola clade. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. antarctica represents a lineage within the P. rufescens clade, which is sister to the P. ponojensis/monticola clade.
The new genus Sinuicella, an early successional lichen, was found on bare soil in Oregon, USA. The thallus is minute fruticose, grey to nearly black, branching isotomic dichotomous, branches round, 20–90 μm wide in water mount. The cortex is composed of interlocking cells shaped like jigsaw puzzle pieces. Spores are hyaline, 1-septate, 25–40(–50) × 6.5–9(–11) μm. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on multilocus data sets, first spanning the entire order Peltigerales and then restricted to Peltigeraceae with extended sampling from Solorina and Peltigera, revealed the placement of Sinuicella outside of currently recognized genera, sister to Peltigera, with high support. Based on the phylogenetic, morphological and ecological distinctness of Sinuicella, we formally introduce a new genus represented by the single species S. denisonii. The cyanobiont of S. denisonii is Nostoc from phylogroup XL, Clade 2, Subclade 3 based on the rbcLX marker.
Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting the extent of morphological convergence within Lecanoromycetes O. E. Erikss. & Winka. While the higher level classification of these fungi might be clarified by such transfers, numerous specific and generic classifications remain to be addressed. We examined the relationships within the broadly circumscribed genus Arctomia Th. Fr., which has been the recipient of several transfers from Collemataceae. We demonstrated that Arctomia insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Ertz does not belong to Arctomia s. str. but forms a strong monophyletic group with Gabura fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg. We also confirmed that Arctomia borbonica Magain & Sérus. and the closely related Arctomia insignis represent two species. We formally transferred A. insignis and A. borbonica to the genus Gabura Adans. and introduced two new combinations: Gabura insignis and Gabura borbonica. We reported Gabura insignis from Europe (Scotland and Ireland) for the first time. While material from Europe and North America is genetically almost identical, specimens from Madagascar, South Africa and Reunion Island belong to three distinct phylogenetic lineages, all of which are present in the latter area and may represent distinct species. In its current circumscription, the genus Gabura may contain up to six species, whereas Arctomia s. str. includes only two species (A. delicatula Th. Fr. and A. teretiuscula P. M. Jørg.). The Gabura insignis group is shown to have an unexpectedly large, subcosmopolitan distribution. With the extended sampling from Arctomiaceae Th. Fr., the placement of Steinera sorediata P. James & Henssen in the genus Steinera Zahlbr. is confirmed and the presence of a new Steinera species from Chile is highlighted.
A new cyanolichen, Peltigera islandica sp. nov. in the section Peltigera (‘P. canina group’) is described from Iceland. This species is similar in general appearance to P. rufescens and P. membranacea, but may be recognized by its downturned lobe tips and narrow lobes, respectively. Most thalli are bright emerald green in colour when moist, although a dark khaki green colourmorph is also documented. Monophyly of P. islandica s. lat. (i.e. including P. sp. A sensu O’Brien et al., from Canada) is significantly supported based on ITS sequences and corroborated by molecular synapomorphy (absence of the ITS1 hypervariable region). Analysis of the rbcLX locus indicates the cyanobiont of P. islandica (Nostoc sp.) comprises strains belonging to a pool of Icelandic genotypes, some of which are present in other Peltigera species, including P. “neorufescens”, another taxon new to Iceland collected during this study. Association with photobionts that are shared by other local species suggests P. islandica may be well established in Iceland, but a review of herbarium collections as well as broader field surveys are needed to better characterize its geographical distribution.
The identity and phylogenetic placement of photobionts associated with two lichen-forming fungi, Umbilicaria spodochroa and Lasallia pustulata were examined. These lichens commonly grow together in high abundance on coastal cliffs in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The mycobiont of U. spodochroa reproduces sexually through ascospores, and must find a suitable algal partner in the environment to re-establish the lichen symbiosis. Lasallia pustulata reproduces mainly vegetatively using symbiotic propagules (isidia) containing both symbiotic partners (photobiont and mycobiont). Based on DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) we detected seven haplotypes of the green-algal genus Trebouxia in 19 pairs of adjacent thalli of U. spodochroa and L. pustulata from five coastal localities in Norway. As expected, U. spodochroa associated with a higher diversity of photobionts (seven haplotypes) than the mostly asexually reproducing L. pustulata (four haplotypes). The latter was associated with the same haplotype in 15 of the 19 thalli sampled. Nine of the lichen pairs examined share the same algal haplotype, supporting the hypothesis that the mycobiont of U. spodochroa might associate with the photobiont ‘pirated’ from the abundant isidia produced by L. pustulata that are often scattered on the cliff surfaces. Up to six haplotypes of Trebouxia were found within a single sampling site, indicating a low level of specificity of both mycobionts for their algal partner. Most photobiont strains associated with species of Umbilicaria and Lasallia, including samples from this study, represent phylogenetically closely related taxa of Trebouxia grouped within a small number of main clades (Trebouxia sp., T. simplex/T. jamesii, and T. incrustata+T. gigantea). Three of the photobiont haplotypes were found only in U. spodochroa thalli.
A study of the lichenicolous fungi occurring on species of the
lichenized genus Peltigera has resulted in six new species:
curvispora, L. didymospora, L. fennica Alstrup,
Polycoccum superficiale, Roselliniella peltigericola,
Zwackhiomyces kiszkianus. A key to the
five known species of Libertiella is included. This paper
brings the number of fungi known on this host to 87, of which 61 are not
known from any other host genus, providing additional evidence for the
of Peltigera thalli as a host for novel fungi. The
possible hypotheses to explain the richness of this host genus for
lichenicolous fungi are enumerated; these are not mutually exclusive.
The new genus Vagnia is introduced for the single species V. cirriformia discovered on thalli of Peltigera in Poland; it appears to be a pathogen as the cortex is destroyed in a rounded patch within which the conidiomata occur. The fungus is characterized by cupulate to doliiform conidiomata clothed in white hairs and from which a black columnar cirrus of conidia arises. The simple ellipsoid conidia are hyaline when viewed individually and are formed enteroblastically from elongate conidiogenous cells supported by branched conidiophores.
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