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This book offers translations of early critical reactions to Kant's account of free will. Spanning the years 1784-1800, the translations make available, for the first time in English, works by little-known thinkers including Pistorius, Ulrich, Heydenreich, Creuzer and others, as well as familiar figures including Reinhold, Fichte and Schelling. Together they are a testimony to the intense debates surrounding the reception of Kant's account of free will in the 1780s and 1790s, and throw into relief the controversies concerning the coherence of Kant's concept of transcendental freedom, the possibility of reconciling freedom with determinism, the relation between free will and moral imputation, and other arguments central to Kant's view. The volume also includes a helpful introduction, a glossary of key terms and biographical details of the critics, and will provide a valuable foundation for further research on free will in post-Kantian philosophy.
Chaff lining and chaff tramlining are harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems that involve the concentration of chaff material containing weed seed into narrow (20 to 30 cm) rows between or on the harvester wheel tracks during harvest. These lines of chaff are left intact in the fields through subsequent cropping seasons in the assumption that the chaff environment is unfavorable for weed seed survival. The chaff row environment effect on weed seed survival was examined in field studies, and chaff response studies determined the influence of increasing amounts of chaff on weed seedling emergence. The objectives of these studies were to determine the influences of (1) chaff lines on the summer–autumn seed survival of selected weed species and (2) chaff type and amount on rigid ryegrass seedling emergence. There was frequently no difference (P > 0.05) in seed survival of four weed species (rigid ryegrass, wild oat, annual sowthistle, and turnip weed) when seeds were placed beneath or beside chaff lines. In one instance, wild oat seed survival was increased (P < 0.05) when seed were placed beneath compared to beside a chaff line. The pot studies determined that increasing amounts of chaff consistently resulted in decreasing numbers of rigid ryegrass seedlings emerging through chaff material. The suppression of emergence broadly followed a linear relationship in which there was approximately a 2.0% reduction in emergence with every 1,000 kg ha–1 increase in chaff material. This relationship was consistent across wheat, barley, canola, and lupin chaff types, indicating that the physical presence of the chaff was more important than chaff type. These studies suggested that chaff lines may not affect the survival over summer–autumn of the contained weed seeds but that the subsequent emergence of weed seedlings will be restricted by high amounts of chaff (>40,000 kg ha–1).
The famous greenstone figure known as the Tuxtla Statuette is one of only 12 objects known to bear an epi-Olmec inscription and was the first to become known to scholarship. For more than a century its original find-spot was imprecisely and erroneously identified as lying in the township of San Andrés Tuxtla or, more generally, in the Tuxtla Mountains. Correspondence in the National Anthropology Archives of the Smithsonian Institution documents that the figure was found on the Hacienda de Hueyapan de Mimendi, near the colossal head of Tres Zapotes. Archival research in Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology and the Archivo General del Estado de Veracruz, as well as interviews with descendants of owners of the Hacienda de Hueyapan and the statuette, allow us to confirm several features of the Smithsonian correspondence. The data indicate that the statuette was found within or very near the epi-Olmec regional center of Tres Zapotes and within the township of Santiago Tuxtla.
Management of the high rates of medical and psychiatric complications, including self-harm and suicide, associated with anorexia nervosa requires regular clinical review. However, during the current pandemic, face-to-face clinical assessments carry the risk of infection and transmission in this vulnerable cohort already compromised by low weight and lowered immunity. This paper describes how one service has had to adapt usual care during the COVID-19 pandemic without contributing excessively to carer burden or compromising patient safety.
Schizophrenia is associated with altered neural development. We assessed neurological soft signs (NSS) and dermatoglyphic anomalies (total a–b ridge count (TABRC) and total finger ridge count) in 15 pairs of twins concordant and discordant for schizophrenia. Within-pair differences in both NSS and TABRC scores were significantly greater in discordant compared to concordant monozygotic pairs. There was no significant difference in NSS and TABRC scores between subjects with schizophrenia and their co-twins without the illness. However, monozygotic discordant twins with schizophrenia had higher ABRCs on their right hands compared to their co-twins without the illness. These findings suggest that an unidentified environmental event acting between weeks 6 and 15 of gestation affects the development of monozygotic twins who go on to develop schizophrenia but does not have a corresponding effect on their co-twins who do not develop the illness. The effect of such an event on dermatoglyphic profiles appears lateralised to the right hand in affected twins.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
The rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the prerequisite for adverse cardiovascular events. Calcification morphology plays a critical role in plaque stability, therefore accurate calcification classification is essential for favourable patient management. Blood biomarkers may be a worthwhile approach to stratify patients based on calcification phenotype. Vitamin K-dependent Matrix γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential utility of circulating non-functional MGP (dp-ucMGP) measurements to determine arterial stiffness and calcification levels. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between circulating dp-ucMGP and calcification phenotype within symptomatic atherosclerotic lesions. Consenting patients undergoing standard endarterectomy procedures were recruited (n = 29). Fasting venous blood was collected preoperatively. Circulating plasma levels of dp-ucMGP were quantified using the inaKtif MGP (dp-ucMGP) iSYS kit. A bicinchoninic acid assay was used to standardise the total protein content present in each sample. High-resolution micro-CT imaging was conducted on the excised atherosclerotic specimens postoperatively. ImageJ post-processing was used to accurately quantify the calcification volume (≥ 130 Hounsfield Units) and determine the total number of calcified particles (3D objects counter plugin). Thirteen carotid (average age 71 years, 9 male) and fourteen peripheral lower limb (average age 65 years, 12 male) patients were examined. One patient had a carotid and a peripheral lower limb plaque (age 79, male). Peripheral lower limb specimens have larger volumes of calcification and higher numbers of calcified particles than carotid samples (472 ± 310 vs 85 ± 113mm3, p < 0.0005; 13919 ± 16034 vs 3476 ± 6208, p = 0.061.) While a higher dp-ucMGP value was noted in carotid than peripheral lower limb patients (214 ± 52 vs 169 ± 36pmol/L, p = 0.014) there was no correlation between circulating dp-ucMGP and calcification volume or number of calcified particles (rs = -0.329 and rs = 0.046). Previous research also found that peripheral lower limb lesions contain higher volumes of calcification than carotid lesions. There is currently no published data on calcified particle comparisons. Patients with symptomatic carotid disease are assumed to have a degree of peripheral arterial disease, this could explain the higher levels of circulating dp-ucMGP in carotid patients. The current study did not examine the dietary patterns of individuals with regards to Vitamin K intake or analyse other areas of the vasculature for additional calcification. This may interfere with dp-ucMGP measurements. This study serves as a preliminary investigation into the potential of dp-ucMGP as a blood based biomarker to distinguish between symptomatic atherosclerotic calcification phenotypes.
The C677T polymorphism in the folate metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with hypertension. Riboflavin acts as a cofactor for MTHFR in one-carbon metabolism which generates methyl groups for utilisation in important biological reactions such as DNA methylation. Supplementation with riboflavin has previously been shown to lower blood pressure in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. The mechanism regulating this gene-nutrient interaction is currently unknown but may involve aberrant DNA methylation which has been implicated hypertension.
The aims of this study were to examine DNA methylation of hypertension-related genes in adults stratified by MTHFR C677T genotype and the effect of riboflavin supplementation on DNA methylation of these genes in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype.
Materials and Methods:
We measured DNA methylation using pyrosequencing in a set of candidate genes associated with hypertension including angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), G nucleotide binding protein subunit alpha 12 (GNA12), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3). Stored peripheral blood leukocyte samples from participants previously screened for the MTHFR C677T genotype who participated in targeted randomised controlled trials (1.6mg/d riboflavin or placebo for 16 weeks) at Ulster University were accessed for this analysis (n = 120).
There were significant differences in baseline average methylation between MTHFR CC and TT genotypes at NOS3 (p = 0.026) and AGTR1 (p = 0.045) loci. Riboflavin supplementation in the TT genotype group resulted in altered average methylation at IGF2 (p = 0.025) and CpG site-specific alterations at the AGTR1 and GNA12 loci.
DNA methylation at genes related to hypertension were significantly different in individuals stratified by MTHFR genotype group. Furthermore, in MTHFR 677TT genotype individuals, there were concurrent alterations in DNA methylation at genes linked to hypertension in response to riboflavin supplementation. This is the largest study to date to demonstrate an interaction between DNA methylation of hypertension-related genes and riboflavin supplementation in adults with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Further work using a genome-wide approach is required to better understand the role of riboflavin in altering DNA methylation in these genetically at-risk individuals.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient with biochemical and cellular effects through activities of 25 selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Selenoproteins are anti-inflammatory and have antioxidant properties. Severe selenium deficiency causes muscle weakness and atrophy in humans however the effects of moderate selenium deficiency are unclear. The aims of this study are twofold: 1) to determine dietary selenium intakes and contributing food sources in very old adults and; 2) to determine whether dietary selenium intakes are associated with 5-year trajectories of muscle function: hand-grip strength (HGS) and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG).
Cross-sectional (baseline) and prospective (1.5, 3 and 5-year follow-up) analyses of 845 participants aged 85 years from the Newcastle 85 + study were assessed for HGS and TUG performance using standardized protocols (Antoneta et al. 2016). Baseline dietary intakes were assessed using 24-hour multiple pass recall methods on two separate days (Mendonça et al. 2016). The top selenium food contributors (~90%) and the adequacy of intakes were determined i.e. those with intakes < LRNI, between the LRNI and RNI and > RNI. Linear mixed models explored the associations between selenium intake categories and time on the prospective, 5-year change in HGS and TUG in all participants, males and females.
Median intakes of selenium were 39, 48 and 35μg for all participants, males and females, respectively. Selenium intakes were below the LRNI in 51% of participants (median 27μg) whilst 15% had intakes ≥ the RNI (median 85μg). Only 13.3% of females and 16.9 % of males met the RNI. The top selenium contributors were cereals (46%), meat (22%), fish (10%), milk (6%), eggs (4%) and potatoes (3%) making up 91% of selenium intakes. Those with the lowest intakes had 2.72 kg lower HGS and 2.36s slower TUG compared to those with higher intakes (P < 0.005). There was no association between selenium intake in HGS or TUG, but time had a significant effect on the rate of change over 5-years in both parameters (P < 0.001).
Overall these results show that poor dietary selenium intakes are common in very old adults and that cereal and cereal products are major sources of selenium in this population. Whilst low selenium intakes are associated with worse HGS and TUG performance in the cross-sectional analysis, no significant associations were observed in the prospective analyses.
Resolved emission from gas-phase methanol can reveal the abundance and distribution of the comet-forming ice reservoir in protoplanetary disks. ALMA Cycle 4 observations of four transitions of gas-phase methanol in TW Hya allow the first model-independent determination of the rotational temperature of methanol in a prototoplanetary disk. The data confirm that the methanol is rotationally cold (Trot < 50 K), and well constrain the column density to 2 × 1012 cm−2. Astrochemical models will constrain the chemical origin of methanol in TW Hya.
Ici, au moins, on n’en a qu’avec les cyclones, une
petite secousse de temps en temps, la faim qui avance
à grandes enjambées et finira par nous bouffer tous.
Peut-être même avant l’océan.
Louis-Philippe Dalembert, L’Autre face de la mer, 31
As a point of departure, allow me to illustrate the idea of an “eco-archive” with a brief analysis of the above passage from Louis-Philippe Dalembert's L’Autre face de la mer, one of his earliest works and a stunning novel of twentieth-century Haiti. Dalembert depicts the tight relation between subjective experience and surrounding land and sea as sites of communal struggle against larger political forces. Grannie, the narrator of the first section, tells the story of her family’s journey, during the first U.S. occupation of Haiti (1915–1934), from Port-au-Prince across the border to the Dominican Republic, where her father took up work on a sugarcane plantation. Nearing the end of her life, Grannie marks the historical distance from this period by naming hurricanes, alleged by some, she remarks dismissively, to be “aussi fantasques et imprévisibles que nous” (31). Grannie understands so-called “natural disasters” as much for their periodic disruption of the delicate balance between human populations and non-human nature as for their capacity to delineate social boundaries between order and disorder. Grannie's narration might be read to go against the grain of what Mark Anderson refers to as a “modern grammar of disaster,” or the political mediation of catastrophic events whose syntax of control includes “key concepts such as risk, vulnerability, trauma, and normalization” (Disaster Writing, 20). Over time, Anderson continues, disasters do not so much disrupt the normal order of things as expose historical processes that have long left certain populations vulnerable. Grannie suggests as much when she laments that the Haitian people are said to be as “unpredictable” as hurricanes. In the Caribbean zone, the ferocious convergence of water and wind whips up a two-sided “natural” character in the people who suffer such force: they are helpless and resilient. Grannie is wise to these stereotypes, as she speaks truth to power with her own rhetorical move by personifying hunger and granting it an alarming agency. In her mind, this dire social condition will be more devastating than an angry ocean.
Haitian writers have made profound contributions to debates about the converging paths of political and natural histories, yet their reflections on the legacies of colonialism, imperialism, and neoliberalism are often neglected in heated disputes about the future of human life on the planet. The 2010 earthquake only exacerbated this contradiction. Despite the fact that Haitian authors have long treated the connections between political violence, precariousness, and ecological degradation, in media coverage around the world, the earthquake would have suddenly exposed scandalous conditions on the ground in Haiti. This book argues that contemporary Haitian literature historicizes the political and environmental problems brought to the surface by the earthquake by building on texts of earlier generations, especially at the end of the Duvalier era and its aftermath. Informed by Haitian studies and models of postcolonial ecocriticism, the book conceives of literature as an "eco-archive," or a body of texts that depicts ecological change over time and its impact on social and environmental justice. Focusing equally on established and less well-known authors, the book contends that the eco-archive challenges future-oriented, universalizing narratives of the Anthropocene and the global refugee crisis with portrayals of different forms and paths of migration and refuge within Haiti and around the Americas.
And during this final conversation, I am even more certain that to create dangerously is also to create fearlessly, boldly embracing the public and private terrors that would silence us, then bravely moving forward even when it feels as though we are chasing or being chased by ghosts.
Edwidge Danticat, Create Dangerously, 148
This chapter examines the literary witnessing of Edwidge Danticat and Dany Laferrière. Consistent with the preceding chapter, it pairs testimonial texts and fiction (Danticat's Create Dangerously and Claire of the Sea Light, along with Laferrière's Tout bouge autour de moi and L’Énigme du retour) to consider the creative reconstruction of Haiti through its “living archive.” The critical literature on these two authors is voluminous. As such, after a brief comparison, the bulk of the chapter is devoted to Danticat. This decision is both practical and strategic. Camus plays a leading role in Danticat's Create Dangerously, and therefore I continue to analyze Haitian rereadings of the French-Algerian. In pursuing this lead, I am in good company. J. Michael Dash writes eloquently of Danticat being inspired by Camus's varied depictions of the solitary artist in pursuit of unbounded solidarity.3 More recently, Christian Flaugh underscores Danticat's admiration for friends of her parents in their secretive staging of Camus's play, Caligula, in Duvalier’s Haiti. “This particular popular theatre,” Flaugh contends, “revealed a transcultural performance practice by way of a twentieth-century French- Haitian traversée” (“Engaging Reality and Popular Performance,” 48). Flaugh's characterization of this intertextuality as a kind of crossing is richly suggestive of the historical and cross-cultural depths of the literary archives treated in this book.
This chapter focuses on a different Camus than the more uplifting figure resurrected by Lahens. Although both writers reflect on the ethics of the writer in times of crisis, Danticat evokes the Camus whose literature was celebrated by the Nobel Committee at the same time that his peers rebuked his political stance on the war in Algeria. Camus was beholden to the myth of the Mediterranean as a space of timeless humanism and hospitality. Yet the colonial setting would also induce a sense of alienation, a feeling of distance and estrangement that Camus famously explored in L’Étranger and the short stories of L’Exil et le royaume.
Louis-Philippe Dalembert, “l’étranger en marche sur la terre … “
Yanick Lahens and Edwidge Danticat are literary witnesses to political and natural catastrophes and their unsettling effects on the experience of time and space. Part Two has drawn attention to the ways that each attests to overlapping temporalities of past, present, and future inherent to aftermaths. Their fictions shed light on communities that remain haunted by the shadows of political violence and that continue to struggle with deteriorating environments and economic deprivation. Lahens and Danticat write and rewrite stories of migration and refuge that are animated by an acute awareness of the dispossession of Haitian experience and a deep sense of environmental justice. Yet if their essays are bolstered by the desire to re-center the place of Haiti within the Americas and to critique reductive, politicized ideas of disaster, they also betray apprehension in the face of an obscured future.
Having considered the synergies of testimonial and creative writing, this final chapter returns to the imbrication of geological and human fault lines. In the introduction to this book, I suggested that questions raised in Failles offer a way to rethink the emergence of the Anthropocene and to check its increasing influence in academic and popular circles – indeed, one might say, its tendency to colonize these discursive spaces. Crucially, Lahens suggests that the well-being of humanity lies not simply in a future-oriented awareness of “our geological age,” but rather in the recognition of the unfinished “Age of Revolution” and the failure of Western European modernity to “humanize the black Man.” As opposed to the universal human of the Anthropocene, perceived to be outside the politics of difference, Lahens underscores the continuous history of subjugation and political and environmental injustice.
This chapter extends the opening analyses of Failles by arguing that the open-ended conclusions of Dalembert's Ballade d’un amour inachevé, Victor's Maudite éducation and L’Escalier de mes désillusions, and Pierre-Dahomey's Rapatriés go against the grain of two widespread narratives that shape the interpretation of disaster. The first is the humanitarian storyline, which I briefly summarize below before turning to the second – the narrative of declension proper to most, if not all, theories of the Anthropocene.