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Field studies were conducted during 1983 and 1984 to determine the single and interactive effects of trifluralin, soybean thrips, and the sodium salt of acifluorfen on soybean. Increased soybean injury was observed in 1983 when acifluorfen at 0.6 kg ai/ha was applied to soybeans infested with soybean thrips versus plants where soybean thrips were controlled. Soybean injury measured by percent defoliation and visual injury ratings was reduced when thrips were controlled versus soybeans where thrips were not controlled with carbaryl at 0.9 kg ai/ha in 1983. Soybean thrips alone did not reduce soybean seed yield in this study. Acifluorfen reduced soybean photosynthetic rate, shoot weight, root weight, and seed yield. Trifluralin had no effect on soybean growth parameters measured in this study.
We examine producer behavior, resistance evolution, and returns under alternative refuge requirements in an eastern North Carolina region with multiple corn, cotton, and soybean fields infested by a mobile pest. Returns are highest, pyrethroid sprays occur least frequently, and pyrethroid resistance evolution is delayed most effectively with no refuge requirement. Complying with the current 20% refuge requirement costs the producer $8.67 per cotton acre, or $34.21 per non-transgenic insecticidal (Bt) cotton acre. Returns are highest under each refuge requirement when one-toxin Bt cotton is not phased out; however, removal of the technology at the earliest phase-out date minimizes regional pyrethroid sprays.
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