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Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Many newborns with pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum require intervention to establish pulmonary flow and sufficient cardiac output. The resulting haemodynamic changes are not well characterised and may have unintended consequences.
This is a 30-year (1988–2018) retrospective study of patients with pulmonary atresia intact ventricular septum.
Eighty-nine patients were included, and median follow-up was 8 years. Fifty-five per cent had coronary sinusoids and 27% had right ventricular-dependent coronary circulation. Most patients were managed with surgical aortopulmonary or modified Blalock–Taussig shunt (73%), and 12 patients underwent balloon atrial septostomy before surgical intervention. The remaining patients (27%) underwent only transcatheter interventions; 7 required an atrial septostomy and 17 required ductal stentings. All-cause mortality was 10%, most deaths (89%) occurred before 18 months of age. Of these early deaths, 87% required a balloon atrial septostomy and 85% had right ventricular-dependent coronary sinusoids. Eighteen-month mortality was significantly higher for patients who required a balloon atrial septostomy compared to those who did not (36% versus 1.4% p < 0.0001).
Patients with pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum who require balloon atrial septostomy in the newborn period have significantly higher 18-month mortality. Quantifying the mortality difference may help guide prognostication and expectation setting. Infants who had septostomy and a surgical shunt in the newborn period fared better than those who only underwent septostomy (even when accompanied by ductal stenting). For infants with right ventricular-dependent circulation, atrial septostomy should only be performed on an urgent or emergent basis and these patients should be considered for early surgical intervention and neonatal transplant.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The years between 1258 and 67 comprise one of the most influential periods in the Middle Ages in England. This turbulent decade witnessed a bitter power struggle between King Henry III and his baronsover who should control the government of the realm. Before England eventually descended into civil war, a significant proportion of the baronage had attempted to transform its governance by imposingon the crown a programme of legislative and administrative reform far more radical and wide-ranging than Magna Carta in 1215. Constituting a critical stage in the development of parliament, the reformist movement would remain unsurpassed in its radicalism until the upheavals of the seventeenth century. Simon de Montfort, the baronial champion, became the first leader of a political movement to seize power and govern in the king's name. The essays collected here offer the most recent research into and ideas on this pivotal period. Several contributions focus upon the roles played in the political struggle by particular sections of thirteenth-century society, including the Midland knights and their political allegiances, aristocratic women, and the merchant elite in London. The events themselves constitute the second major theme of this volume, with subjects such as the secret revolution of 1258, Henry III's recovery of power in 1261, and the little studied maritime theatre during the civil wars of 1263-7 being considered.
Adrian Jobson is an Associate Lecturer at Canterbury Christ Church University.
Contributors: Sophie Ambler, Nick Barratt, David Carpenter, Peter Coss, Mario Fernandes, Andrew H. Hershey, Adrian Jobson, Lars Kjaer, John A. McEwan, Tony Moore, Fergus Oakes, H.W. Ridgeway, Christopher David Tilley, Benjamin L. Wild, Louise J. Wilkinson.