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Intermediaries are communication experts who facilitate communication between individuals with communication needs and the criminal justice system. In executing the role, intermediaries interact with police, lawyers, judges and other criminal justice professionals. But is the intermediary a professional in its own right? This article argues that a more useful question to ask is whether intermediaries engage in what Andrew Abbott terms ‘professional work’. It reveals how the role tussles for legitimate control over its work tasks through the staking of ‘jurisdictional claims’. Intermediaries do so through the performance of ‘boundary work’ which involves the construction and negotiating of boundaries that mediate interaction. This article presents findings from thirty-one in-depth, semi-structured interviews with intermediaries and judges in England and Wales and Northern Ireland. It concludes that the future of the intermediary role and its work depends largely on the type of ‘jurisdictional settlement’ which its practitioners seek to carve out.
Reintroduction practitioners must often make critical decisions about reintroduction protocols despite having little understanding of the reintroduction biology of the focal species. To enhance the available knowledge on the reintroduction biology of the warru, or black-footed rock-wallaby Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell Ranges race, we conducted a trial reintroduction of 16 captive individuals into a fenced predator and competitor exclosure on the An̲angu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia. We conducted seven trapping sessions and used radio-tracking and camera traps to monitor survival, reproduction and recruitment to the population over 36 months. Blood samples were collected pre-release and during two trapping sessions post-release to assess nutritional health. The survival rate of founders was 63%, with all losses occurring within 10 weeks of release. Post-release blood biochemistry indicated that surviving warru adapted to their new environment and food sources. Female warru conceived within 6 months of release; 28 births were recorded during the study period and 52% of births successfully recruited to the population. Our results suggest that captive-bred warru are capable of establishing and persisting in the absence of introduced predators. However, the high mortality rate immediately post-release, with only a modest recruitment rate, suggests that future releases into areas where predators and competitors are present should use a trial approach to determine the viability of reintroduction. We recommend that future releases of warru into unfenced areas include an intensive monitoring period in the first 3 months post-release followed by a comprehensive long-term monitoring schedule to facilitate effective adaptive management.
Lactate levels are increasingly used to guide resuscitation efforts. Some surgical literature suggests that tourniquet use during phlebotomy falsely elevates results, although studies in healthy volunteers have not demonstrated this. The purpose of this study was to determine in clinical practice whether tourniquet use during the drawing of a lactate results in significantly altered levels compared to the result of a level drawn without a tourniquet.
A prospective cohort study was carried out on emergency department patients whose clinical presentation led a physician to order a lactate level. Written informed consent was obtained from patients or their proxies. Study lactates were obtained using a tourniquet during the draw sequence of other laboratory studies. Lactate levels for clinical use were drawn per hospital protocol with no tourniquet. The time of lactate measurements and patient demographic information were recorded. Lactate levels for each patient were compared with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test.
40 patients were consented and enrolled. The median clinical lactate level was 1.9 (interquartile range 1.5-2.6), and the median study lactate level was 1.9 (interquartile range 1.4-2.7). There was no difference between paired lactate values (p=0.95).
Tourniquet use appears to have no impact on measured lactate levels. Our findings suggest that current practices at many institutions regarding lactate collection are likely too stringent and should be changed.
The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, β-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated.
Koalas have undergone a series of sequential founding events on islands in south-eastern Australia in recent times. Populations in South Australia at the Eyre Peninsula and Mt Lofty Ranges were founded in the 1960s from a colony on Kangaroo Island. The Kangaroo Is. colony was derived from animals introduced to French Island from mainland Victoria over a century ago. In this study, we first use microsatellite markers to quantify levels of genetic variation within the South Australian koala populations and the relatively unperturbed Strzelecki Ranges population from mainland Victoria. This analysis revealed low levels of allelic diversity (1.7 ± 0.2 to 2.7 ± 0.5) and heterozygosity (0.208 ± 0.088 to 0.340 ± 0.110) in the three South Australian koala populations relative to the Strzelecki Ranges population, which has the highest levels of allelic diversity (4.7 ± 1.1) and heterozygosity (0.476 ± 0.122) in Victoria. Second, we measured the incidence of testicular aplasia, a unilateral or bilateral failure in testicular development, in the Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Is. populations, and in the ultimate founding population at French Is. Testicular aplasia was present at a frequency of 4.3% in French Is., 12.8% in Kangaroo Is. and 23.9% in the Eyre Peninsula, but was undetectable in the non-bottlenecked Pilliga State Forest population of New South Wales. The incidence of testicular aplasia correlated positively with effective inbreeding coefficients derived from heterozygosity values (0.13 ± 0.06 in the Pilliga State Forest, 0.57 ± 0.17 in French Is., 0.63 ± 0.12 on Kangaroo Is. and 0.77 ± 0.12 in the Eyre Peninsula), which may indicate inbreeding depression. These findings are of concern when evaluating the long-term conservation and viability of the South Australian koala populations, which may benefit from genetic augmentation in the future. Finally, unconfirmed reports suggested that animals from other states in Australia were introduced into the Mt Lofty Ranges population. Therefore, we quantified differentiation between the three South Australian populations and the Strzelecki Ranges and French Is. populations, based on microsatellites and mtDNA d-loop region variation. R-statistics and Goldstein's delta mu square distance revealed that differentiation at nuclear loci between populations paralleled known recent population history, except for the close relationship between Mt Lofty Ranges and French Is. This suggested a recent contribution to the Mt Lofty Ranges populations of animals derived from the French Is. translocation program. Furthermore, mtDNA d-loop analysis found no evidence of contributions to the gene pool from animals of New South Wales or Queensland stock, implying that the population was derived exclusively from Victorian stock.
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