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ABSTRACT IMPACT: The Independent Investigator Incubator program provides 1:1 mentoring from ‘super-mentors’ to enhance junior faculty careers in research. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In 2014, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) in collaboration with the Indiana CTSI established the Independent Investigator Incubator (I3) Program. The I3 Program is designed to provide 1:1 mentoring for new research faculty during the crucial early years of their careers. Our goal is to provide an overview of the I3 design and 5-year data. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The I3 Program employs a resource-sharing, centralized design that provides concentrated 1:1 mentorship from a senior faculty ‘super mentor’ as well as other resources, such as grant writing support. Unlike many mentorship programs, I3 mentors closely interact with the mentees within the School and are compensated for their efforts (5% full-time equivalency per mentee, max of 15%). The number of ‘super mentors’ has grown from 6 to 15 faculty over 5 years, and mentors typically serve 4 to 5 mentees. Mentee applications are accepted on a rolling enrollment basis. The I3 mentees represent a diverse group based on sex, ethnicity, terminal degree, academic track, and discipline. Mentors and mentees have annual reviews through the program. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In five years, 110 mentees have enrolled in the I3 program. Upon entering, 53% had no external funding, 28% had internal funding, 12% had K-awards, 7% had R03/R21 awards. Over the first five years, 75% have received extramural funding. The median funding was $340,000 with nearly a third of mentees securing grants > 1 million in direct costs. For mentees who joined the program in its first three years (n=59), the average time to a notable extramural grant (defined as a NIH or foundation grant >$300K direct costs) was 2.2 years (median - 2.6 years). Nearly all mentees were satisfied with their mentor pairing based on the mentor’s ‘availability’ and ‘valuable feedback,’ and all mentees wanted the mentoring relationship to continue DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Since 2014, the I3 Program has had a positive impact on the careers of junior faculty at IUSM as determined by faculty satisfaction and funding metrics. Future focus areas will include developing criteria/models for graduating from the program to balance fiscal sustainability with mentee needs during their transition to mid-career.
To consider the principal effect of an interaction between year (pre- and post-Universal Infant Free School Meals (UIFSM)) and school on pupil’s dietary intakes.
A repeated cross-sectional survey using dietary data from 2008 to 2009 (pre-) and 2017 to 2018 (post-UIFSM)
Two primary schools, NE England.
Pupils aged 4–7 years (2008–2009 n 121; 2017–2018 n 87).
At lunchtime, there was a statistically significant decrease in pupils non-milk extrinsic sugars intake (%E NMEs) pre- to post-UIFSM (mean change –4·6 %; 95 % CI –6·3, –2·9); this was reflected in total diet (–3·8 %; –5·2, –2·7 %). A year and school interaction was found for mean Ca intakes: post-UIFSM pupils in School 2 had a similar mean intake as pre; in School 1 intakes had increased (difference of difference: –120 mg; 95 % CI –179, –62); no reflection in total diet. Post-UIFSM mean portions of yogurt decreased in School 2 and remained similar in School 1 (–0·25; –0·46, –0·04); this was similar for ‘cake/pudding’ and fruit.
Within the limitations, these findings highlight positives and limitations following UIFSM implementation and demonstrate the role of school-level food practices on pupil’s choices. To facilitate maximum potential of UIFSM, national levers, such as discussions on updating school food standards, including sugars, could consider removing the daily ‘pudding’ option and advocate ‘fruit only’ options 1 d/week, as some schools do currently. Small school-level changes could maximise positive health impacts by decreasing NMEs intake. A more robust evaluation is imperative to consider dietary impacts, equitability and wider effects on schools and families.
We evaluated a cohort of 35 children diagnosed with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy with regard to physical and psychosocial well-being.
Material and Methods:
Patients wore an accelerometer to record their time involved in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Parents were also asked to describe if their child had changed their physical activity because of their diagnosis and how difficult and upsetting it was for the child to adapt to the physical activity recommendations.
Patients were involved in less moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day (35 min/day versus 55 min/day) and had lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total health scores (79 versus 84) compared to normative data. Overall, 51% of the cohort modified their physical activity in some way because of their diagnosis and changing physical activity was associated with lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory scores.
Our cohort was involved in less moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and had lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total health scores compared to normative paediatric data. Modifying one’s physical activity was associated with worse health-related quality of life scores, highlighting a vulnerable sub-group of children. These findings are useful for families and healthcare professionals caring for children who are adjusting to a new cardiac diagnosis of an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
Grylloblatta campodeiformis campodeiformis Walker (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) was commonly collected during summer from trees killed by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in subalpine forests of Alberta, Canada. Gut content analysis revealed that the grylloblattids fed on subcortical invertebrates. This newly reported habitat association shows that this species is not limited to strictly alpine habitats and glacial margins, and thus may be more widespread and common than suggested by earlier reports.
We tested the applicability of the “passive sampling” hypothesis and theory of island biogeography (TIB) for explaining the diversity of forest-dwelling carabid assemblages (Carabidae: Coleoptera) on 30 forested islands (0.2–980.7 ha) in Lac la Ronge and the adjacent mainland in Saskatchewan, Canada. Species richness per unit area increased with distance to mainland with diversity being highest on the most isolated islands. We detected neither a positive species-area relationship, nor significant differences in species richness among island size classes, or between islands and the mainland. Nonetheless, carabid assemblages distinctly differed on islands <1 ha in area and gradually approached the structure of mainland assemblages as island area increased. Small islands were characterised by abundant populations of small-bodied, winged species and few if any large-bodied, flightless species like Carabus taedatus Fabricius. Our findings suggest that neither the “passive sampling” hypothesis nor the theory of island biogeography adequately explain carabid beetle diversity patterns observed among islands in Lac la Ronge. Instead, we hypothesise that population processes such as higher extinction rates of large-bodied, flightless species and the associated release of smaller-bodied, flying species from intra-guild predation on small islands contribute to observed differences in the structure of carabid assemblages between islands.
We used laboratory and field feeding trials to investigate adult carabid
beetle preferences for three brassicaceous weed species (rapeseed, wild
mustard, and field pennycress) that are pests in canola. All carabid species
preferred seeds of rapeseed most and those of field pennycress least and
showed intermediate preference for wild mustard seeds. Beetles highly
preferred imbibed seeds of all three weed species. Activity–density of
carabids and mean weed seed removal were highly correlated in field plots of
canola, with activity–density accounting for 67% of the observed variation
in seed removal. Our study indicates that seed consumption among carabids is
influenced by several factors, including weed species, physiological state
of seeds, and carabid activity–density. Carabid seed predation is
significant in canola agroecosystems; therefore, understanding these
influences has implications for ecological weed management.
Whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann (Pinaceae), a foundational species of North American subalpine ecosystems, is endangered across its range and continued decline is inevitable. Little is known about the invertebrate fauna associated with this species which, if specific to whitebark pine, may also be threatened or endangered. We compared the composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with whitebark pine and co-occurring lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta latifolia (Engelmann) Critchfield (Pinaceae), recently killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in subalpine forests in Alberta, Canada. Redundancy and rarefaction analyses revealed that beetle assemblage composition was influenced by snag class (i.e., time since death) but differed little among the two pine species within snag classes. However, a subset of the assemblage known to be associated with the MPB differed significantly in composition between the two pines. No common species were exclusively associated with whitebark pines; however, seven species were rarely collected only on whitebark pine. With the possible exception of these rare species, felling and burning infested whitebark pines to control the MPB will not likely endanger saproxylic beetles associated with this tree.
This study identified factors that influenced physical activity (PA) participation among older adults from rural settings in Nova Scotia Canada and explored how the rural context may influence PA participation and promotion. Data were collected via individual semistructured interviews with 20 older adults (Mage = 77.5 years) from rural areas of Cape Breton and subjected to thematic analysis procedures (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Four themes representing factors that influence the prioritization of PA were identified: (1) historical context of activity, work, and productivity; (2) already busy with day-to-day activities; (3) being/staying on the go; and (4) cautionary approach. These findings suggest that PA promotion should be contextually salient, and highlight the need for a shared understanding between rural older adults and PA promoters regarding what constitutes being “physically active”. Effective promotion of PA among rural older adults may require a shift away from contemporary methods of PA promotion.
Ground beetles are postdispersal weed seed predators, yet their role in
consuming buried seeds is not well studied. We conducted greenhouse
experiments to investigate how seed burial affects consumption of weed seeds
(volunteer canola) by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Seed
burial depth influenced seed consumption rates as demonstrated by a
significant interaction between seed burial depth, carabid species, and
gender of the carabid tested. We observed higher seed consumption by females
of all species, and greater consumption of seeds scattered on the soil
surface compared with seeds buried at any depth. However, there was evidence
of seed consumption at all depths. Adults of Pterostichus
melanarius (Illiger) and Harpalus affinis
(Schrank) consumed more buried seeds than did those of Amara
littoralis Mannerheim. Agricultural practices, such as tillage,
bury seeds at different depths and based on the results of this study, these
practices may reduce seed consumption by carabids. Soil conservation
practices that reduce tillage (conservation or zero tillage) will favor
greater weed seed predation due, in part, to the high availability of seeds
at the soil surface or at shallow soil depths.
We report on the analysis of virtual powder-diffraction patterns from serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data collected at an X-ray free-electron laser. Different approaches to binning and normalizing these patterns are discussed with respect to the microstructural characteristics which each highlights. Analysis of SFX data from a powder of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 in this way finds evidence of other trace phases in its microstructure which was not detectable in a standard powder-diffraction measurement. Furthermore, a comparison between two virtual powder pattern integration strategies is shown to yield different diffraction peak broadening, indicating sensitivity to different types of microstrain. This paper is a first step in developing new data analysis methods for microstructure characterization from serial crystallography data.
The millivolt energy resolution now obtainable in electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) on the latest monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope corresponds, via the uncertainty principle, to a time range of 414 fs (for 10 meV resolution), and a time resolution of 0.138 fs (for energy range of 30 eV). (Thus, the width of an EELS peak is inversely related to the lifetime of an excitation.) This compares favorably with the latest X-ray free electron lasers. The time evolution of a Drude–Lorentz oscillator may be obtained from an EELS using logarithmic deconvolution followed by Kramers–Kronig analysis to extract the frequency-dependent dielectric function, and a final Fourier transform from frequency to time domain. This time-dependent dielectric function was interpreted as the impulse response of electrons, phonons, or ions based on the Drude–Lorentz theory. The time evolution of electronic oscillators from ice and protein, extracted from low resolution experimental data, were compared. Using higher energy resolution data we have also extracted the time-resolved spectra from excitons in an alkali halide, BaF2. Despite the small scanning transmission electron microscope probe size, delocalization limits the spatial resolution to about 50 nm, which is, nevertheless, better than the millimeter resolution of infrared absorption spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy.
It is unrealistic to achieve high-resolution biodiversity inventories required to support local conservation strategies over large areas; however, benchmark associations between arthropods and ecosystem classification can support landscape scale biomonitoring. We investigated habitat associations of ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae), staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in three forest ecosystems in northwestern Alberta, Canada and also studied the effect of variation in depth of pitfall trap installation on catch. Composition and diversity of all three taxa were correlated with the ecosystem classification map, and 20 species were strong indicators of particular habitats. The black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg; Pinaceae) bog supported fewer species and individuals of beetles but this trend was not observed for spiders because of natural history traits associated with their performance in this environment. Pitfall trapping biases were constant among habitats enabling proper comparison of ground-dwelling invertebrate assemblages. Three species of beetles (Agonum retractum LeConte (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Pterostichus brevicornis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Quedius velox Smetana (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)) were disproportionally active beneath the soil surface, as catches were greater in pitfall traps with the lip situated 15–25 cm below the soil surface. Thus, even highly standardised trap placement will influence the concept of biodiversity achieved through pitfall trapping, because some target organisms are disproportionately active in subterranean zones.
A set of rhetorical commonplaces or topoi are shared by the prologues to classical and medieval works from many literary genres. Medieval chronicles are frequently introduced by prologues which draw on these topoi, taking as their examples the prologues of classical historians such as Sallust and Livy, and those of early Christian historians. The topoi include providing an outline of the work's content; referring to the need for brevity; citing precedents to the work; a declaration of the modest status of the author or the work; and for historical texts, an assertion that the function of historical writing was to show God's purpose in the world and to encourage righteous behaviour. E. R. Curtius enumerated these topoi, and their use in historical prologues has been examined by Bernard Guenée and Antonia Gransden.
In this chapter, I will discuss the prologues to Anglo-Norman prose chronicles, focusing on one rhetorical commonplace, or rather its absence: an expression of modesty. As Curtius has noted, it was conventional for those medieval historians who wrote in Latin to express the relatively unimportant nature of their work in their prologues. William of Newburgh, in his introductory letter to his Historia Rerum Anglicanum, says that he is not going to devote himself ‘altis scrutandis mysticisque rimandis insistere, sed in narrationibus historicis praecipiat spatiari ad tempus tanquam pro quadam ex facilitate operis recreatione ingenii’ (‘to the investigation of lofty matters, nor to the exploration of the mysteries, but to stroll for a while in the paths of historical narrative, an easy task offering a form of mental recreation’).
My aim in this book has been to create a fuller understanding of Anglo-Norman prose chronicles as a distinctive genre within the literary culture of late medieval England. In this conclusion, I will attempt to re-evaluate that place in the light of the information presented in previous chapters.
To begin with, it is clear that Anglo-Norman prose chronicles occupied a distinct space in that literary culture. Anglo-Norman was an authoritative language of ofi cial records, and it was also the main language of private correspondence: an intimate language which could allow chroniclers to engage directly with their audiences. At the same time, the language had a distinguished literary past, including in the genre of historical writing. Anglo-Norman prose chroniclers fused the directness of an everyday language with the rhetorical flourish and imagination of earlier verse histories. As I described in my first chapter, this allowed the chroniclers to articulate with confidence in their prologues that their works were dei nitive historical accounts clearly presented.
Having established their own authority, these chronicles began to recount their version of the past. In my analysis I have concentrated on their presentation of key ideas and episodes from national history: the legendary British past, legends about heroes of Anglo-Saxon England, and the Norman Conquest. From a comparison of their treatment of these three subjects, a common approach to their representations of the past emerges.