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Anxiety is a common human emotion and is experienced by all people at some point in life. It is characterized by a state of apprehension about a perceived threat or potentially dangerous situation. In addition, fear is a negative emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat. At mild to moderate levels, anxiety can be adaptive, motivating, and can help improve performance and attention. For example, prior to a significant life event such as an important test or presentation, some individuals may experience anxiety, which could serve as a motivator to work harder and perform better. Similarly, fear can be an adaptive response when one is confronted with a life-threatening situation, and a fight or flight response to danger is present and adaptive across many animal species. However, for some, anxiety or fear may be overwhelming, distressing, and interfere with functioning. This may require a person to seek treatment depending on the level of interference and could also result in the development of a psychiatric condition.
To examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and wellbeing in doctors.
The relationship between doctor wellbeing and mental health diagnoses is not well evidenced in the literature. There is a lack of comparable measurement of wellbeing in doctors within the National Health Service, meaning the effectiveness of wellbeing interventions is unknown.
A cross-sectional survey containing the PHQ9, GAD7 and WEMWBS questionnaires to measure depression, anxiety and wellbeing respectively, was advertised online nationally. The relationships between the total scores were explored using Spearman's rho correlation coefficients and Chi square tests. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews offered further insights.
Sixty-seven doctors returned completed questionnaires. 29.9% had PHQ9 scores >5 and 41.8% had GAD7 scores >5. Therefore, over a quarter of the participants had a score that would suggest a management plan was needed for depression, and a third for anxiety. Moderate negative correlation between the total WEMWBS scores and the total PHQ , rs= –0.775, p = 0.00, N = 67 and GAD7 scores rs= –0.724, , p = 0.00, N = 67 was seen. Statistically significant differences between those with low wellbeing scores (WEMWBS < 40) and normal wellbeing scores (WEMWBS ≥ 40) in relation to the need for a management plan for depression (PHQ9 > 10) X2 (1, N = 67) = 12.395, p = 0.00 and anxiety (GAD7>10) X2 (1, N = 67) = 5.611, p = 0.018 were seen. The main themes identified from the interviews (n = 10) were the importance of social support outside of work, cynicism about an NHS plan check-in and a tendancy to neglect wellbeing until it has dipped.
There is a moderate negative correlation between anxiety, depression and wellbeing, but they are not opposites and separate measures for wellbeing should be used. It is clinically useful to note that only those with a WEMWBS score of <45 had a PHQ9 score suggesting the need for treatment of depression.
Doctors’ mental health is a national concern – the General Medical Council, British Medical Association and Health Education England pledge to improve their well-being. Well-being has no common definition, instead pathogenic measures such as burnout are published as a demonstration of doctors’ wellbeing. Yet, the relationship between burnout and wel-being has not been explored.
to investigate the relationship between burnout and well-being.
they are negatively associated, but not opposites.
An online cross-sectional national survey was distributed to doctors of all grades and specialties via the Royal Colleges and doctor organisations. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) measured burnout, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) measured well-being. Correlation coefficients between total scores of these measures estimated the relationship. Additionally, semi-structured interviews explored personal definitions of wellbeing and its relationship with burnout. Thematic analysis was carried out.
64 doctors completed the OLBI and WEMWBS. Comparing the total scores for the questionnaires with Spearman's rho indicates a moderate negative correlation (rs= –0.658, p = 0.00, n = 64). Total scores were made into binary variables, a Chi-square test showed that a low WEMWBS score (<40) and a very high risk OLBI score (≥2.85 exhaustion and ≥2.6 disengagement) were statistically significantly associated (X 2 (1, N = 64) = 4.232, p = 0.04). Three themes emerged from the 10 interviews conducted: the importance of networks/relationships outside work; scepticism towards the proposal of an NHS wellbeing check-in; and how participants do not strive to improve their wellbeing until its decline.
This research demonstrates that wellbeing and burnout have only a moderate negative correlation when using commonly employed measurement tools. Therefore, measures of burnout are not a surrogate for wellbeing. Further research could adopt a salutogenic approach by using the WEMWBS to monitor doctors’ wellbeing and could explore interventions to increase well-being, rather than waiting for its decline.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6–8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure–volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare simultaneous integrated boost-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (SIB-VMAT) of head-and-neck plans optimised using segmented and non-segmented intermediate-risk target volumes.
Materials and methods:
CT data of 20 patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer treated with radical chemoradiation were included retrospectively. Both segmented [planning target volume (PTV) IR!] and non-segmented PTV (PTV IR) volumes were created for the intermediate-risk volume. Correspondingly, two VMAT plans were generated for every CT dataset. Dosimetry parameters obtained from cumulative dose volume histogram and the quality indices such as conformity and homogeneity indices were evaluated for both plans and were statistically analysed.
Maximum dose of PTV IR! was observed to be higher in the non-segmented plans (7281·45 versus 7075·75 cGy) and was statistically significant (p = 0·002). Homogeneity index (HI) of PTV IR! in segmented plans fared better compared to non-segmented plans (0·1 versus 0·12, p = 0·01). All other dosimetry parameters were found to be similar in both plans.
This study shows that using segmented volumes for planning will lead to more homogenous plans with regard to intermediate- and low-risk volumes, especially under controlled settings.
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an extremely rare and aggressive subtype of salivary gland cancer with high morbidity and mortality and poor response to treatment. The current options of treatment include radical surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyse the patterns of recurrences, possible predictors of outcome and role of RT in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SDC.
A retrospective review of patients treated between 2010 and 2019 with histologically proven non-metastatic SDC was conducted.
Sixteen patients were included in the series. Median follow-up was 25 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 12 months were 61% and 80%, respectively. Seven out of the 16 patients had disease progression, distant metastases being most frequent. Four patients died due to disease progression. PFS was significantly worse for patients with pathological neck node positivity (p = 0·036) and peri-parotid nodes (p = 0·007). Local control was significantly associated with RT (p = 0·011). Addition of any chemotherapy, regardless of either concurrent or adjuvant, had no impact on the PFS or OS. Pathological neck node positivity with nodal stage of N2 or higher correlated significantly with worse OS (p = 0·031).
Salivary ductal carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with high metastatic potential. Inferior prognosis was observed among patients who had metastatic deposits in either cervical nodes or peri-parotid nodes on histopathology. As systemic failures are more predominant among these patients, larger prospective trials are needed to formulate an optimum strategy for choice and sequencing of first-line systemic therapy.
There are numerous health effects associated with excess sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Interventions aimed at reducing population-level consumption require understanding of the relevant barriers and facilitators. This study aimed to identify the variables with the strongest relationship with intentions to reduce SSB consumption from a suite of variables derived from the literature.
Random-digit dialling of landline and mobile phones was used to survey adults using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The outcome variable was ‘likelihood of reducing SSB consumption in next 6 months’, and the predictor variables were demographics, SSB attitudes and behaviour, health risk perceptions and social/environmental exposure.
A subsample of 1630 regular SSB consumers from a nationally representative sample of 3430 Australian adults (38 % female, 51 % aged 18–45 years, 56 % overweight or obese).
Respondents indicated that they were ‘not at all’ (30·1 %), ‘somewhat’ (43·9 %) and ‘very likely’ (25·3 %) to reduce SSB consumption. Multivariate nominal logistic regressions showed that perceiving future health to be ‘very much’ at risk was the strongest predictor of intention to reduce SSB consumption (OR = 8·1, 95 % CI 1·8, 37·0, P < 0·01). Other significant predictors (P < 0·01) included self-perceptions about too much consumption, habitual consumption, difficulty reducing consumption and likelihood of benefitting from reduced consumption.
Health risk perceptions had the strongest relationship with intentions to reduce consumption. Age and consumption perceptions were also predictors in the multivariate models, whereas social/environmental exposure variables were not. Interventions may seek to incorporate strategies to denormalise consumption practices and increase knowledge about perceived susceptibility to health risks.
Most patients with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade 5 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have poor outcomes. Accurate assessment of prognosis is important for treatment decisions and conversations with families regarding goals of care. Unjustified pessimism may lead to “self-fulfilling prophecy,” where withdrawal of life-sustaining measures (WLSM) is invariably followed by death.
We performed a cohort study involving consecutive patients with WFNS grade 5 SAH to identify variables with >= 90% and >= 95% positive predictive value (PPV) for poor outcome (1-year modified Rankin Score >= 4), as well as findings predictive of WLSM.
Of 140 patients, 38 (27%) had favorable outcomes. Predictors with >= 95% PPV for poor outcome included unconfounded 72-hour Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <= 4, absence of >= 1 pupillary light reflex (PLR) at 24 hours, and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score of >= 20 (volume >= 54.6 ml). Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume >= 53 ml had PPV of 92%. Variables associated with WLSM decisions included a poor motor score (p < 0.0001) and radiographic evidence of infarction (p = 0.02).
We identified several early predictors with high PPV for poor outcome. Of these, lack of improvement in motor score during the initial 72 hours had the greatest potential for confounding from “self-fulfilling prophecy.” Absence of PLR at 24 hours, IVH score >= 20, and ICH volume >= 53 ml predicted poor outcome without a statistically significant effect on WLSM decisions. More research is needed to validate prognostic variables in grade 5 SAH, especially among patients who do not undergo WLSM.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Seed conservation of banana crop wild relatives (Musa L. spp.) is limited because of lack of knowledge about their germination ecology. Musa acuminata Colla, the most important banana crop wild relative, is distributed in tropical and subtropical Asian and Pacific rainforests and colonizes disturbed sites. The role of temperature in stimulating/inhibiting germination to detect disturbance when canopy gaps are formed is not well known. We assessed seed germination thermal requirements of three subspecies of M. acuminata using nine seed accessions which had been stored in the Millennium Seed Bank. Diurnally alternating temperature cycles were almost completely essential for germination compared with constant temperatures. Germination was optimal when the upper temperature of a diurnal cycle was at 35°C; the lower temperature of the cycle was less important. Subspecies occurrence coordinates were used to extract climate temperature data which were then compared against the temperature requirements for germination from our experiment results. Maximum temperatures of the warmest month across subspecies ranges were close to but below optimal germination temperatures, as were diurnal ranges, suggesting soil-warming at the micro-climate level following gap creation is important for M. acuminata seed germination. Additionally, pre-treatment for 3 months at 60% relative humidity at constant 25°C improved germination from 14 ± 10 (mean, standard deviation) to 41 ± 29% suggesting a period in the soil seed bank under the canopy may increase sensitivity to alternating temperature cycles. Overall viability was low (49 ± 28%), and considerable variance was caused by the different accessions. Germination remained somewhat inconsistent.
Numerous research studies have demonstrated an association between higher symptom severity and cognitive impairment with poorer social functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP). By contrast, the influence of subjective experiences, such as social relatedness and self-beliefs, has received less attention. Consequently, a cohesive understanding of how these variables interact to influence social functioning is lacking.
We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect relationships among neurocognition (processing speed) and social cognition, symptoms, and social relatedness (perceived social support and loneliness) and self-beliefs (self-efficacy and self-esteem) in 170 individuals with FEP.
The final model yielded an acceptable model fit (χ2 = 45.48, comparative fit index = 0.96; goodness of fit index = 0.94; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.94; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06) and explained 45% of social functioning. Negative symptoms, social relatedness, and self-beliefs exerted a direct effect on social functioning. Social relatedness partially mediated the impact of social cognition and negative symptoms on social functioning. Self-beliefs also mediated the relationship between social relatedness and social functioning.
The observed associations highlight the potential value of targeting social relatedness and self-beliefs to improve functional outcomes in FEP. Explanatory models of social functioning in FEP not accounting for social relatedness and self-beliefs might be overestimating the effect of the illness-related factors.
Postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of insulin resistance in adolescents is increasing, but it is unknown how adolescent participant characteristics such as BMI, waist circumference, fitness and maturity offset may explain responses to a standard meal. The aim of the present study was to examine how such participant characteristics affect the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to an ecologically valid mixed meal. Data from the control trials of three separate randomised, crossover experiments were pooled, resulting in a total of 108 participants (fifty-two boys, fifty-six girls; aged 12·5 (SD 0·6) years; BMI 19·05 (SD 2·66) kg/m2). A fasting blood sample was taken for the calculation of fasting insulin resistance, using the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Further capillary blood samples were taken before and 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardised lunch, providing 1·5 g/kg body mass of carbohydrate, for the quantification of blood glucose and plasma insulin total AUC (tAUC). Hierarchical multiple linear regression demonstrated significant predictors for plasma insulin tAUC were waist circumference, physical fitness and HOMA-IR (F(3,98) = 36·78, P < 0·001, adjusted R2 = 0·515). The variance in blood glucose tAUC was not significantly explained by the predictors used (F(7,94) = 1·44, P = 0·198). Significant predictors for HOMA-IR were BMI and maturity offset (F(2,102) = 14·06, P < 0·001, adjusted R2 = 0·021). In summary, the key findings of the study are that waist circumference, followed by physical fitness, best explained the insulinaemic response to an ecologically valid standardised meal in adolescents. This has important behavioural consequences because these variables can be modified.
Livy's Ab urbe condita Book XXII narrates Hannibal's massive defeats of the Romans at Trasimene (217 BC) and Cannae (216 BC). It is Livy's best and most dramatic book, and the one most likely to appeal to students at every level. Livy drew on the Greek historian Polybius, but transformed his drier treatment into a rhetorical masterpiece, which by a series of insistent thematic contrasts brings out the tensions between the delaying tactics of Fabius and the costly rashness of Flaminius, Minucius and Varro. A substantial and accessibly written introduction by two experienced commentators covers historical, religious, literary and linguistic matters, including the place of Book XXII in the structure of Livy's long work. A new text by Briscoe is followed by a full commentary, covering literary and historical aspects and offering frequent help with translation. The volume is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, teachers, and scholars.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
We have previously shown that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. To further test the hypothesis that an increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced indicators of structural vascular disease in other areas of the vascular tree, we aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between cruciferous vegetable intake and extensive calcification in the abdominal aorta. Dietary intake was assessed, using a FFQ, in 684 older women from the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study. Cruciferous vegetables included cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and broccoli. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was scored using the Kauppila AAC24 scale on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry lateral spine images and was categorised as ‘not extensive’ (0–5) or ‘extensive’ (≥6). Mean age was 74·9 (sd 2·6) years, median cruciferous vegetable intake was 28·2 (interquartile range 15·0–44·7) g/d and 128/684 (18·7 %) women had extensive AAC scores. Those with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables (>44·6 g/d) were associated with a 46 % lower odds of having extensive AAC in comparison with those with lower intakes (<15·0 g/d) after adjustment for lifestyle, dietary and CVD risk factors (ORQ4 v. Q1 0·54, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·97, P = 0·036). Total vegetable intake and each of the other vegetable types were not related to extensive AAC (P > 0·05 for all). This study strengthens the hypothesis that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables may protect against vascular calcification.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.