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Ernst Mach’s works have often been interpreted as presenting some version of idealism, such as phenomenalism. However, Erik C. Banks’ recent case for the rival neutral monist reading seems persuasive. But it still leaves a problem: how to explain why so many intelligent and thoughtful readers, some of them sympathetic to Mach, thought of him instead as some kind of idealist. I set out the major factors which tempt people into reading Mach thus and assess the strengths and weaknesses of these two readings.
Ernst Mach is, in my view, one of the greatest of a very significant and original group of thinkers: the philosophising scientists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Although Mach did not think of himself as a philosopher, it is the more philosophical parts of his published works that continue to attract the most attention. Mach’s ideas, their reception, and the trajectory of Mach scholarship since the late nineteenth century unfolded as follows.
This volume presents new essays on the work and thought of physicist, psychologist, and philosopher Ernst Mach. Moving away from previous estimations of Mach as a pre-logical positivist, the essays reflect his rehabilitation as a thinker of direct relevance to debates in the contemporary philosophies of natural science, psychology, metaphysics, and mind. Topics covered include Mach's work on acoustical psychophysics and physics; his ideas on analogy and the principle of conservation of energy; the correct interpretation of his scheme of 'elements' and its relationship to his 'historical-critical' method; the relationship of his thought to movements such as American pragmatism, realism, and neutral monism, as well as to contemporary figures such as Friedrich Nietzsche; and the reception and influence of his works in Germany and Austria, particularly by the Vienna Circle.
It's only necessary to take a short trip in an urban area to see how encouraging certain types of travel behaviour has become highly prevalent. Advertising boards exhort us to use ‘park and ride’, roadside signs encourage car sharing, bus advertisements promote the latest public transport app, while local and national government campaigns promote the health and wellbeing benefits of more walking and cycling. All of these interventions in our travel experience are now quite routine. Yet this has not always been the case, and the promotion of behavioural change as a viable strategy to meet particular policy goals (for example, reducing carbon emissions, cutting local air pollution, reducing congestion and promoting healthy lifestyles) is a relatively new entrant into the policy toolkits of central and local government. In this chapter, we explore why and how influencing behaviour is regarded as so critical for managing transport flows and spaces. In particular, we highlight the ways in which the rise of behavioural change as a policy tool can be linked to broader and underpinning shifts in the development of a neo-liberal political economy. We also highlight how behavioural change neatly fits with the progressive upholding of individual choice as the marker of a free market, consumer-based society – a political philosophy that necessitates exhortation and persuasion as devices of government, rather than public ownership and tight regulation.
Our chapter is divided into three main sections. First, we examine the ways in which transport researchers and other social scientists have researched travel behaviour and the underpinning theories and methods they have adopted. As with other areas of transport and travel research, different theoretical frameworks have led to distinct and often contrasting understandings of behaviour and we explore the ways in which both psychological and sociological framings of travel behaviour can lead to important, but very different, insights into what influences travel decision making. Second, we place these intellectual trajectories into a policy context by examining the ways in which the social science of (travel) behaviour has been mobilised to meet a range of policy goals.
We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a Phased Array Feed (PAF) receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility (PTF). These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the PAF beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using PAF technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 12 December 2016. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks.
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry. The results indicated that ploidy had no significant effect on gross gill score or gill filaments affected, while infection and time had significant effects. Ploidy, infection and time did not affect complement or anti-protease activities. Ploidy had a significant effect on lysozyme activity at 21 days post-infection (while infection and time did not), although activity was within the ranges previously recorded for salmonids. Stock did not significantly affect any of the parameters measured. Based on the study results, it can be suggested that ploidy does not affect the manifestation or severity of AGD pathology or the serum innate immune response. Additionally, the serum immune response of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon may not be significantly affected by amoebic gill disease.
Following the ‘prompt’ radio outburst seen soon after the neutrino emission in SN 1987A (Turtle et al. 1987), we initiated a program to monitor the supernova at the Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communications Complex at 8.4 GHz in a search for radio emission from the expanding remnant. No radio emission has been detected to date (DOY 151, May 30 1988).
For 40 years, the sizes and shapes of many dozens of asteroids have been determined from observations of asteroidal occultations, and over a thousand high-precision positions of the asteroids relative to stars have been measured. Some of the first evidence for satellites of asteroids was obtained from the early efforts; now, the orbits and sizes of some satellites discovered by other means have been refined from occultation observations. Also, several close binary stars have been discovered, and the angular diameters of some stars have been measured from analysis of these observations. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) coordinates this activity worldwide, from predicting and publicizing the events, to accurately timing the occultations from as many stations as possible, and publishing and archiving the observations.
This triennium began with an action to re-create the Terms of Reference for the Working Group Global VLBI (WG-GV). These had been lost over the years since the Group was established in 1990. Fortunately, the personal archive of one long-term member yielded a copy of the original memorandum by R. D. Ekers, which was found to coincide quite well with current practice and areas of interest. New Terms of Reference, based on modern conditions, were drafted and accepted by both IAU and URSI.