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Hand-held hyperspectral reflectance data were collected in the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 to differentiate unique spectral characteristics of common turfgrass and weed species. Turfgrass species evaluated were: bermudagrass, ‘Tifway 419’; zoysiagrass, ‘Meyer’; St. Augustinegrass, ‘Raleigh’; common centipedegrass; and creeping bentgrass, ‘Crenshaw’. Weed species evaluated were: dallisgrass, southern crabgrass, eclipta, and Virginia buttonweed. Reflectance data were collected from greenhouse and field locations. An overall classification accuracy of 85% was achieved for all species in the field. A total of 21 spectral bands between 378 and 1,000 nm that were consistent over the three data collection periods were used for analysis. Only centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, and dallisgrass were correctly classified less than 80% of the time. An overall classification accuracy of 69% was achieved for the greenhouse species. Spectral bands used in this analysis ranged from 353 to 799 nm. Creeping bentgrass and Virginia buttonweed were classified correctly at 96 and 92%, respectively.
Consumption of almonds has been shown to be associated with a decreased risk of CHD, which may be related to their fatty acid (FA) composition. However, the effect of almond consumption on the serum FA composition is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether almond consumption would alter the serum FA profile and risk of CHD, as calculated using Framingham's 10-year risk score, in a dose-dependent manner in hyperlipidaemic individuals when compared with a higher-carbohydrate control group using dietary interventions incorporating almonds. A total of twenty-seven hyperlipidaemic individuals consumed three isoenergetic (mean 1770 kJ/d) supplements during three 1-month dietary phases: (1) full-dose almonds (50–100 g/d); (2) half-dose almonds with half-dose muffins; (3) full-dose muffins. Fasting blood samples were obtained at weeks 0 and 4 for the determination of FA concentrations. Almond intake (g/d) was found to be inversely associated with the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score (P= 0·026). In both the half-dose and full-dose almond groups, the proportions of oleic acid (OA) and MUFA in the TAG fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·003; MUFA P= 0·004; full-almond: OA P< 0·001; MUFA P< 0·001) and in the NEFA fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·01; MUFA P= 0·04; full-almond: OA P= 0·12; MUFA P= 0·06) increased. The estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·011) and MUFA (P= 0·016) content in the TAG fraction. The proportions of MUFA in the TAG and NEFA fractions were positively associated with changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Similarly, the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·069) and MUFA content in the NEFA fraction (P= 0·009). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that almond consumption increases OA and MUFA content in serum TAG and NEFA fractions, which are inversely associated with CHD lipid risk factors and overall estimated 10-year CHD risk.
Contrary to concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, there is evidence that small, ‘catalytic’ doses ( ≤ 10 g/meal) of fructose decrease the glycaemic response to high-glycaemic index meals in human subjects. To assess the longer-term effects of ‘catalytic’ doses of fructose, we undertook a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d featuring ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) in isoenergetic exchange for other carbohydrates. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I2. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score assessed study quality. A total of six feeding trials (n 118) met the eligibility criteria. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD − 0·40, 95 % CI − 0·72, − 0·08) and fasting glucose (MD − 0·25, 95 % CI − 0·44, − 0·07). This benefit was seen in the absence of adverse effects on fasting insulin, body weight, TAG or uric acid. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed evidence of effect modification under certain conditions. The small number of trials and their relatively short duration limit the strength of the conclusions. In conclusion, this small meta-analysis shows that ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) may improve glycaemic control without adverse effects on body weight, TAG, insulin and uric acid. There is a need for larger, longer ( ≥ 6 months) trials using ‘catalytic’ fructose to confirm these results.
As ultrasonography is increasingly used in the emergency department (ED), ultrasound equipment has become a potential threat to infection control. Improperly cleaned ultrasound probes may serve as a vector for pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization on ultrasound probes used in a busy, urban ED. It was hypothesized that cultures of our ED ultrasound probes would yield a significant number of positive results for MRSA.
In this observational study, 11 ED ultrasound probes were randomly sampled on 10 different occasions. Samples were taken using a RODAC plate method and were cultured for MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). On half of the randomly assigned sampling occasions, a visual inspection of each ultrasound probe for general cleanliness was conducted and recorded. Data were stratified by ultrasound location in the ED and analyzed using the Fisher exact test, with p < 0.05 deemed to be statistically significant.
Of 110 samples, no isolates of MRSA were cultured. One probe yielded a positive culture for MSSA. Probes in the medicine, trauma, and pediatrics areas were found to be clean 65%, 33%, and 70% of the time, respectively. This variability in probe cleanliness by ED location was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Contrary to our hypothesis, MRSA contamination of ultrasound probes was not found. This finding suggests that the spread of MRSA by ED ultrasound machines in a high-volume urban ED is unlikely. Further research at different centres with larger sample sizes is required before these results can be generalized.
Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the “guitar pick” sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post–lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression.
Various medical specialty organizations and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) have advocated using ultrasonography to guide central venous cannulation. It is surprising then, that very few instructional models have been described to teach this technique. Consequently, we developed a model to teach ultrasound-guided central venous access. This paper presents a recipe for an ultrasonographic model or “phantom” that is easily made, inexpensive and simulates vessel cannulation extremely well.
The teaching of ultrasonography is rapidly being incorporated into emergency medicine (EM) training programs and clinical practice. Most literature focuses on appropriate indications for the performance of emergency ultrasonography, and most EM-related courses and programs limit their teaching to standard focused indications. Generally this will suffice; however, occasionally, incidental findings, which are beyond the realm of what is taught in these programs, have influenced patient care. In this paper we discuss 7 cases in which incidental findings were discovered during an emergency sonographic examination. In each case the findings changed the patient’s disposition, diagnosis and, potentially, outcome.
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