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The causal impacts of recreational cannabis legalization are not well understood due to the number of potential confounds. We sought to quantify possible causal effects of recreational cannabis legalization on substance use, substance use disorder, and psychosocial functioning, and whether vulnerable individuals are more susceptible to the effects of cannabis legalization than others.
We used a longitudinal, co-twin control design in 4043 twins (N = 240 pairs discordant on residence), first assessed in adolescence and now age 24–49, currently residing in states with different cannabis policies (40% resided in a recreationally legal state). We tested the effect of legalization on outcomes of interest and whether legalization interacts with established vulnerability factors (age, sex, or externalizing psychopathology).
In the co-twin control design accounting for earlier cannabis frequency and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms respectively, the twin living in a recreational state used cannabis on average more often (βw = 0.11, p = 1.3 × 10−3), and had fewer AUD symptoms (βw = −0.11, p = 6.7 × 10−3) than their co-twin living in an non-recreational state. Cannabis legalization was associated with no other adverse outcome in the co-twin design, including cannabis use disorder. No risk factor significantly interacted with legalization status to predict any outcome.
Recreational legalization was associated with increased cannabis use and decreased AUD symptoms but was not associated with other maladaptations. These effects were maintained within twin pairs discordant for residence. Moreover, vulnerabilities to cannabis use were not exacerbated by the legal cannabis environment. Future research may investigate causal links between cannabis consumption and outcomes.
Transient forebrain ischemia was induced in rats whose brain temperature was 31, 33, 35, 38, or 40°C. The development of regional injury was followed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with the ultimate extent of neuronal injury quantified histopathologically. Animals in the hypothermic groups showed minimal changes in MR images over 4 days; normothermic animals snowed intensity enhancement attributed to progressive edema developing in the striatum and, later, in the hippocampus. Ischemia at 40°C resulted in widespread edema formation by I day post-ischemia; animals in this group did not survive beyond 30 hours. Histopathological analysis at 4 days (1 day for the hyperthermic group) post-ischemia showed that neuronal damage in the normothermic group was confined to the hippocampus and striatum. Minimal damage was found in the hypothermic groups; damage in the hyperthermic group was severe throughout the forebrain. There were no differences in the pre-ischemia 31P MR spectra for the different groups. During ischemia, the increase in intensity of the Pi peak and the fall in tissue pH increased with temperature in the order hypothermic < normothermic < hyperthermic group of animals. Post-ischemia energy recovery was similar in all groups, while pH recovered more rapidly in hypothermic animals.
This study demonstrates the utility of a newly-developed moveable 1.5 Tesla intraoperative MR imaging system using a case report of a multi-lobulated parafalx meningioma.
A 43-year-old female presented with progression of a multi-lobulated anterior parafalx meningioma several years following resection of a large left frontal convexity meningioma.
Intervention and Technique:
Surgical excision of the lesion was undertaken. Following apparent total resection, intraoperative MR imaging revealed two residual dumbell shaped lobules. Using these updated MR images, the tumour was readily identified and removed.
The moveable 1.5 Tesla intraoperative MR system used in the present case provides rapid, high resolution MR images during neurosurgical procedures. Moving the magnet out of the surgical field during surgery permits the use of all standard neurosurgical instruments. The ease of use and quality of images combined with minimal interference on well-established surgical techniques makes this system a valuable adjunct in the neurosurgical treatment of intracranial disease.
Minimizing the impact of invasive alien species (IAS) on islands and elsewhere requires researchers to provide cogent information on the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of IAS to the public and policy makers. Unfortunately, this information has not been readily available owing to a paucity of scientific research and the failure of the scientific community to make their findings readily available to decision makers. This review explores the vulnerability of islands to biological invasion, reports on environmental and socioeconomic impacts of IAS on islands and provides guidance and information on technical resources that can help minimize the effects of IAS in island ecosystems. This assessment is intended to provide a holistic perspective on island-IAS dynamics, enable biologists and social scientists to identify information gaps that warrant further research and serve as a primer for policy makers seeking to minimize the impact of IAS on island systems. Case studies have been selected to reflect the most scientifically-reliable information on the impacts of IAS on islands. Sufficient evidence has emerged to conclude that IAS are the most significant drivers of population declines and species extinctions in island ecosystems worldwide. Clearly, IAS can also have significant socioeconomic impacts directly (for example human health) and indirectly through their effects on ecosystem goods and services. These impacts are manifest at all ecological levels and affect the poorest, as well as richest, island nations. The measures needed to prevent and minimize the impacts of IAS on island ecosystems are generally known. However, many island nations and territories lack the scientific and technical information, infrastructure and human and financial resources necessary to adequately address the problems caused by IAS. Because every nation is an exporter and importer of goods and services, every nation is also a facilitator and victim of the invasion of alien species. Wealthy nations therefore need to help raise the capacity of island nations and territories to minimize the spread and impact of IAS.
A random community sample of 1070 subjects aged 65 years and over was interviewed at home using the GMS-agecat package and followed up three years later. Neurotic symptoms were common, but symptoms sufficient to reach ‘case’ level were much less frequent. The overall prevalence of neurotic ‘cases' was 2.4% in year 0 and 1.4% in year 3. The incidence was estimated as a minimum of 4.4 per 1000 per year over the age of 65. Women were more likely to be ‘cases' than men but not ‘subcases', and there was a general decline in prevalence with increasing age, particularly for ‘subcases'. Anxiety was the commonest neurotic subtype. After three years, ‘cases' were shown not to persist, but this did not reflect wellness. There was a tendency still to have some symptoms, but the predominant symptom appeared to change, suggesting a possible chronic neurotic disorder with changing presentation over time. Depressive symptoms were closely associated with this presentation, suggesting that depression may be an important and integral part of a general, changing neurotic disorder.
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