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Health is an important aspect of individuals’ lives as they age. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of sociodemographic factors, diagnosed chronic health conditions, and current depression with attitudes to aging in midlife.
A cross-sectional baseline analysis was conducted on the first 300 participants from the Canterbury Health, Ageing and Life Course study in New Zealand, a stratified randomized community longitudinal study of adults recruited between 49 and 51 years. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ) and analyzed with a range of prevalent diagnosed chronic conditions, current depression, and sociodemographic variables.
Individuals perceived their physical aging more negatively after a diagnosis of hypertension, arthritis or asthma. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, showed strong relationships with attitudes to aging across domains. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and current depression, individuals with diagnosed hypertension, arthritis, asthma, lifetime depression or anxiety continued to report significantly more negative attitudes to aging. Current depression showed the strongest associations with attitudes to aging and mediated relationships of health on attitudes to aging.
Physical and mental health are related to attitudes to aging. Most chronic conditions examined are significantly associated with attitudes toward aging in the physical change domain. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, are negatively related across attitudinal domains. Individuals can feel positive about aging while experiencing poorer health, but this is more difficult in the presence of low mood.
We investigated an increase in Trichosporon asahii isolates among inpatients. We identified 63 cases; 4 involved disseminated disease. Trichosporon species was recovered from equipment cleaning rooms, washbasins, and fomites, which suggests transmission through washbasins. Patient washbasins should be single-patient use only; adherence to appropriate hospital disinfection guidelines was recommended.
Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories.
To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services.
In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services.
Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies.
Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.
Many metallic actinide systems host partially filled 5f electrons in the low-energy spectrum. Consequently, they exhibit diverse quantum mechanical phenomena such as magnetism, superconductivity, a mysterious hidden-order phase, or heavy-fermion behavior. Here we present results of a unified theoretical method based on the self-consistent GW formalism for the electronic many-body self-energy. We calculate the dynamic electronic correlation spectra starting from materials specific first-principles electronic band-structure. In particular, we present results for four isostructural intermetallic actinides PuCoIn5, PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, and UCoGa5. A common underlying property of these materials is a strong spin–orbit coupling split band structure that enables substantial spin fluctuations. In a feedback effect on the electronic structure they create electronic ‘hot spots’, where the single-particle spectral weight is maximum, resulting in a universal peak-dip-hump feature. These results are in good agreement with experiments, suggesting that actinides are adequately described by the intermediate Coulomb interaction regime, where both itinerant (peak) and localized (hump) features coexist.
The electronic structure of delta plutonium (δ-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for δ-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f6 configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f6 configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on δ-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa5. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f5 with some admixture of 5f6 as well as a localized/delocalized 5f5 description.
We examine the electronic structure of δ-Pu, PuCoGa5, and PuO2 using high resolution as well as angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The fermiology of the strongly correlated metals δ-Pu and PuCoGa5 is investigated by determining the primary quasiparticle peak position with respect to the Fermi energy as well as the crystal momentum dependence of this peak for PuCoGa5. For the Mott insulator PuO2, the photoemission results are compared against the hybrid functional calculations and the prediction of significant covalency, is found to be reasonable.
The 5f electronic states in elemental Pu and Pu compounds exhibit elements of both itinerant and localized behavior. Several first-principles calculations have been presented to describe this balance, differing in the manner in which electron correlation is included in the calculation. This paper describes a calculations performed with the Mixed Level Model (MLM), presenting calculated results for the two Pu compounds, PuRhGa5 and PuCoGa5. The MLM results are compared with other calculations and the differences discussed.
The electronic structure of Pu materials is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. For delta-phase Pu metal as well as PuCoGa5 and PuIn3, the 5f electrons appear to be at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. A mixed level model computational scheme is used which results in non-magnetic solutions for the electronic structure and agrees well with the photoemission measurements. Several other computational schemes are assessed against photoemission results for delta Pu. Additional insight is provided by O2 and H2 dosing of the delta Pu samples and consideration of surface effects. The experimental and computational results are consistent with the 5f electrons in Pu materials exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate possible interactions of clethodim with imazapic applied as mixtures or sequentially for control of broadleaf signalgrass, fall panicum, goosegrass, and large crabgrass. Imazapic at 70 g ai/ha alone controlled grass weeds inconsistently, whereas clethodim at 140 g ai/ha alone controlled the same weeds at least 99%. Imazapic did not affect broadleaf signalgrass control by clethodim. Reduced control of fall panicum, goosegrass, and large crabgrass was observed when clethodim and imazapic were applied in mixture. Antagonism of clethodim occurred when clethodim was applied 1 d before or up to 3 d after application of imazapic (fall panicum and large crabgrass). Antagonism of goosegrass control was noted when imazapic was applied 3 d before or up to 7 d after application of clethodim. In other experiments, large crabgrass and Texas panicum control by clethodim (70 and 140 g/ha) applied alone or with imazapic (70 g/ ha) or bentazon (1.1 kg ai/ha) plus 2,4-DB (0.28 kg ai/ha) either with or without ammonium sulfate (2.8 kg/ha) was evaluated. Texas panicum control by clethodim was reduced by imazapic regardless of the ammonium sulfate rate. However, large crabgrass control by imazapic was not affected in these experiments. Control of both grasses by clethodim was reduced substantially by bentazon plus 2,4-DB, although in some instances ammonium sulfate improved control when in mixture. Ammonium sulfate improved control by clethodim in some instances irrespective of the broadleaf–sedge herbicide treatments.
Optical and photoelectron spectroscopies using VUV and Soft X-ray photons are powerful tools for studies of elemental and compound actinides. Large changes in the relative atomic cross sections of the 5f, 6d and sp electrons allow decomposition of the character of the valence bands using photoemission. Resonant enhancement of photoelectrons and Auger electrons at the 5d core threshold further aids the decomposition and gives a measure of elemental specificity. Angle-resolved photoemission can be used to map the momentum dependence of the electronic states. The large changes in relative cross section with photon energy yields further details when the mapping is done at equivalent points in multiple zones. Spectra for well understood rare earth materials will be presented to establish spectral characteristics for known atomic character initial states. These signatures will be applied to the case of USb to investigate f-d hybridization near the Fermi level.
The electronic structure of δ-phase Pu metal and the Pu-based superconductor PuCoGa5 is explored using photoelectron spectroscopy and a novel theoretical scheme. Excellent agreement between calculation and experiment defines a path forward for understanding electronic structure aspects of Pu-based materials. The photoemission results show two separate regions of 5f electron spectral intensity, one at the Fermi energy and another centered 1.2 eV below the Fermi level. A comparison is made between the photoemission data and five computational schemes for δ-Pu. The results for δ-Pu and PuCoGa5 indicate 5f electron behavior on the threshold between localized and itinerant and a broader framework for understanding the fundamental electronic properties of the Pu 5f levels in general within two configurations, one localized and one itinerant.
The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium–thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago.
As recently as 1960, a child born into poverty anywhere in the world had only a one-in-four chance of reaching his fifth birthday, while a person age 15 had a life expectancy of 67 years. Today, vaccines protect eight out of ten of the world's children, more than nine out of ten infants will enroll in school, and the average adult will live into his eighth decade. Around the world, the health gains made in the past two generations are arguably the greatest accomplishment of civilization. What makes these gains so remarkable is that they have been accomplished by people living on every continent on the globe—people representing a panoply of cultures, social structures, and values. Amid this diversity, there is a consistent belief that all societies, and the governments that represent them, are responsible for improving the well-being of the population.
In the health sector, this responsibility means understanding the many factors that go into improving people's health. Some of the most important factors—such as national economic development, education, particularly of women, and the creation of technologies that lead to more effective clinical care—lie outside of what is typically viewed as the health sector. Although these factors are not directly involved with the financing, organization, and delivery of health care, they are substantive sectoral inputs into any country's effort to create better health for its population, and, thus, need to be understood in any health policy context.