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Within the extensive literature on international regionalism, the more limited academic work done on regional financial organizations (RFOs) tends to assume that, by pooling resources to address such common international economic issues as development funding and financial crises, RFOs contribute to economic stability in their parts of the global landscape. Although South America has led the pack in creating such RFOs, their effectiveness is limited by the asymmetry in economic heft of the continent's governments. Rather than weighing the significance of financial regionalism in South America from the point of view of the majority, we assess whether and how this phenomenon has contributed to Brazil's politico-economic rise to near-major-power standing on the world stage in the twenty-first century. Drawing on extensive interviews with Brazilian officials conducted in March 2013, we analyze three instances of South America's international public finance: development lending, crisis lending, and payment systems. Our findings suggest that self-generated unilateral and bilateral financial initiatives have brought Brasília far more significant economic and political results than have RFOs, whose various incarnations have yielded the continental giant few economic and only minor political gains.
To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine compared to placebo over 12-week follow-up.
Economic evaluation in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of mirtazapine vs. placebo.
Community settings and care homes in 26 UK centers.
People with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease and agitation.
Primary outcome included incremental cost of participants’ health and social care per 6-point difference in CMAI score at 12 weeks. Secondary cost-utility analyses examined participants’ and unpaid carers’ gain in quality-adjusted life years (derived from EQ-5D-5L, DEMQOL-Proxy-U, and DEMQOL-U) from the health and social care and societal perspectives.
One hundred and two participants were allocated to each group; 81 mirtazapine and 90 placebo participants completed a 12-week assessment (87 and 95, respectively, completed a 6-week assessment). Mirtazapine and placebo groups did not differ on mean CMAI scores or health and social care costs over the study period, before or after adjustment for center and living arrangement (independent living/care home). On the primary outcome, neither mirtazapine nor placebo could be considered a cost-effective strategy with a high level of confidence. Groups did not differ in terms of participant self- or proxy-rated or carer self-rated quality of life scores, health and social care or societal costs, before or after adjustment.
On cost-effectiveness grounds, the use of mirtazapine cannot be recommended for agitated behaviors in people living with dementia. Effective and cost-effective medications for agitation in dementia remain to be identified in cases where non-pharmacological strategies for managing agitation have been unsuccessful.
I have been thinking a lot about environmental pedagogy in American studies, especially since I started teaching a third-year interdisciplinary course, Climate Change & Culture Wars, which focusses on the post-1970s US. I wanted to know more about how others are approaching the topic as we face up to looming climate and ecological collapse. University teachers and learners across disciplines are reckoning with it, but what's going on in American studies in Britain, and what can we learn from each other and from teachers elsewhere? How is the crisis impacting on the framing of our disciplinary fields and how are we incorporating its intellectual and practical demands into pedagogic spaces and syllabi?
This chapter takes the Meditations to act out the jam in autodiegetic biography, 1. through synkrisis with the SHA M. A., 2. through the programmatic/prelusory relations of M1 with 2-12. In representation reticulated through the diplomatics of first-person self-promotion, concentrated absenting delivers strongly motivated presencing. This is a book that wears its status as a book but wears it thin.
Throughout their 250 Myr history, archosaurian reptiles have exhibited a wide array of body sizes, shapes, and locomotor habits, especially in regard to terrestriality. These features make Archosauria a useful clade with which to study the interplay between body size, shape, and locomotor behavior, and how this interplay may have influenced locomotor evolution. Here, digital volumetric models of 80 taxa are used to explore how mass properties and body proportions relate to each other and locomotor posture in archosaurs. One-way, nonparametric, multivariate analysis of variance, based on the results of principal components analysis, shows that bipedal and quadrupedal archosaurs are largely distinguished from each other on the basis of just four anatomical parameters (p < 0.001): mass, center of mass position, and relative forelimb and hindlimb lengths. This facilitates the development of a quantitative predictive framework that can help assess gross locomotor posture in understudied or controversial taxa, such as the crocodile-line Batrachotomus (predicted quadruped) and Postosuchus (predicted biped). Compared with quadrupedal archosaurs, bipedal species tend to have relatively longer hindlimbs and a more caudally positioned whole-body center of mass, and collectively exhibit greater variance in forelimb lengths. These patterns are interpreted to reflect differing biomechanical constraints acting on the archosaurian Bauplan in bipedal versus quadrupedal groups, which may have shaped the evolutionary histories of their respective members.
Background: Transmission of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) threatens patient safety in healthcare facilities. As a result of a 2011 outbreak of blaKPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae, the NIH Clinical Center (NIHCC) has prioritized early detection and isolation of CPO carriers, using point-prevalence surveys and targeted high-risk ward surveillance since 2011 and admission surveillance since 2013. We describe our experience over 6 years of admission surveillance. Methods: The NIHCC is a 200-bed research hospital that provides care for a highly immunocompromised patient population. From September 2013 to September 2019, perirectal swabs were ordered automatically for all patients on admission to nonbehavioral health wards. Swabs were ordered twice weekly for ICU patients, weekly in other high-risk wards, and monthly for hospital-wide point prevalence (excluding behavioral health). Patients hospitalized in the United States in the previous week or abroad in the previous 6 months were considered high risk for carriage and isolated pending results from 2 swabs. Most swabs (n = 37,526) were cultured onto HardyCHROM CRE. If gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were present, a molecular screen for carbapenemases was performed on a sweep of cultured material (day 1) pending organism isolation. GNB were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Prior to June 2019, isolates were screened by blaKPC/blaNDM PCR. Starting in June 2019, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were screened using the phenotypic modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), reflexing to the GeneXpert CARBA-R molecular assay if positive; other GNB were tested directly with CARBA-R. Selected GNB underwent susceptibility testing (Sensititre). Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess relatedness among CPO isolates. Swabs from high-risk patients were tested directly by blaKPC PCR (n = 699) until August 2019 (most in parallel with culture) and thereafter by CARBA-R (n = 13). Results: Among 54,188 orders for perirectal swabs, 38,238 were collected from 14,497 patients (compliance 71%). Among 33 CPO-colonized patients identified from September 2013 through September 2019, 15 were identified on admission, 6 were identified in point-prevalence surveys, 8 were identified from high-risk ward surveillance, and 4 were identified from clinical cultures. Sequencing demonstrated no relatedness among CPO isolates. Although only 1.4% of patients sampled on admission were colonized with CPO, those meeting high-risk criteria were 21 times as likely to be colonized. Conclusion: Admission surveillance for CPO identified a low rate of colonization, but it detected nearly half of known CPO-colonized NIHCC patients over the past 6 years. Modest compliance with swab collection leaves room for improvement and likely results in missed instances of colonization. Although we cannot determine its effectiveness, we view our strategy as one of several key safety measures for our highly vulnerable patient population.
The landscape of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is changing rapidly. The primary objective of this study was to assess the benefit of linking population-based infection prevention and control surveillance data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to hospital discharge abstract data (DAD). We assessed the value of this novel data linkage for the characterization of hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) cases.
Incident inpatient MRSA surveillance data for all adults (≥18 years) from 4 acute-care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2017, were linked to DAD. Personal health number (PHN) and gender were used to identify specific individuals, and specimen collection time-points were used to identify specific hospitalization records. A third common variable on admission date between these databases was used to validate the linkage process. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA cases identified through the linkage process.
A total of 2,430 surveillance records (94.6%) were successfully linked to the correct hospitalization period. By linking surveillance and administrative data, we were able to identify key differences between patients with HA- and CA-MRSA. These differences are consistent with previously reported findings in the literature. Data linkage to DAD may be a novel tool to enhance and augment the details of base surveillance data.
Conclusion and recommendations:
This is the first Canadian study linking a frontline healthcare-associated infection AMR surveillance database to an administrative population database. This work represents an important methodological step toward complementing traditional AMR surveillance data practices. Data linkage to other data types, such as primary care, emergency, social, and biological data, may be the basis of achieving more precise data focused around AMR.
To determine the attributable cost and length of stay of hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) from the healthcare payer perspective using linked clinical, administrative, and microcosting data.
A retrospective, population-based, propensity-score–matched cohort study.
Acute-care facilities in Alberta, Canada.
Admitted adult (≥18 years) patients with incident HA-CDI and without CDI between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2016.
Incident cases of HA-CDI were identified using a clinical surveillance definition. Cases were matched to noncases of CDI (those without a positive C. difficile test or without clinical CDI) on propensity score and exposure time. The outcomes were attributable costs and length of stay of the hospitalization where the CDI was identified. Costs were expressed in 2018 Canadian dollars.
Of the 2,916 HA-CDI cases at facilities with microcosting data available, 98.4% were matched to 13,024 noncases of CDI. The total adjusted cost among HA-CDI cases was 27% greater than noncases of CDI (ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.33). The mean attributable cost was $18,386 (CAD 2018; USD $14,190; 95% CI, $14,312–$22,460; USD $11,046-$17,334). The adjusted length of stay among HA-CDI cases was 13% greater than for noncases of CDI (ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07–1.19), which corresponds to an extra 5.6 days (95% CI, 3.10–8.06) in length of hospital stay per HA-CDI case.
In this population-based, propensity score matched analysis using microcosting data, HA-CDI was associated with substantial attributable cost.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To understand the mechanisms of how a non-antimicrobial can reshape a commensal microbe community to cure a ubiquitous human disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Whole genome sequencing of bacterial isolates, metabolomic investigations of previously collected skin microbe isolates from patients, and structural investigations of a protein from these skin microbes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Metabolic pathways associated with adaptation to a changing skin microenvironment, novel antimicrobial characterization, and a structural understanding of a novel nutrient acquisition protein. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Multiple angles of this investigation are poised to improve current non-antimicrobial dermatologic treatments and they have the potential to impact microbe-related diseases in other human microenvironments.
Nearly 800,000 primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures are performed annually in North America. Approximately 1% of these are complicated by a complex surgical site infection (SSI), leading to very high healthcare costs. However, population-based studies to properly estimate the economic burden are lacking. We aimed to address this knowledge gap.
Economic burden study.
Using administrative health and clinical databases, we created a cohort of all patients in Alberta, Canada, who received a primary hip or knee arthroplasty between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015. All patients who developed a complex SSI postoperatively were identified through a provincial infection prevention and control database. A combination of corporate microcosting data and gross costing methods were used to determine total mean 12- and 24-month costs, enabling comparison of costs between the infected and noninfected patients.
Mean 12-month total costs were significantly greater in patients who developed a complex SSI compared to those who did not (CAD$95,321 [US$68,150] vs CAD$19,893 [US$14,223]; P < .001). The magnitude of the cost difference persisted even after controlling for underlying patient factors. The most commonly identified causative pathogen (38%) was Staphylococcus aureus (95% MSSA).
Complex SSIs following hip and knee arthroplasty lead to high healthcare costs, which are expected to rise as the yearly number of surgeries increases. Using our costing estimates, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to prevent SSIs should be investigated.
Current policy emphasises the importance of ‘living well’ with dementia, but there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the factors related to quality of life (QoL), subjective well-being or life satisfaction in people with dementia. We examined the available evidence in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic databases until 7 January 2016 for observational studies investigating factors associated with QoL, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Articles had to provide quantitative data and include ⩾75% people with dementia of any type or severity. We included 198 QoL studies taken from 272 articles in the meta-analysis. The analysis focused on 43 factors with sufficient data, relating to 37639 people with dementia. Generally, these factors were significantly associated with QoL, but effect sizes were often small (0.1–0.29) or negligible (<0.09). Factors reflecting relationships, social engagement and functional ability were associated with better QoL. Factors indicative of poorer physical and mental health (including depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms) and poorer carer well-being were associated with poorer QoL. Longitudinal evidence about predictors of QoL was limited. There was a considerable between-study heterogeneity. The pattern of numerous predominantly small associations with QoL suggests a need to reconsider approaches to understanding and assessing living well with dementia.