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The popular field of 'science and religion' is a lively and well-established area. It is however a domain which has long been characterised by certain traits. In the first place, it tends towards an adversarial dialectic in which the separate disciplines, now conjoined, are forever locked in a kind of mortal combat. Secondly, 'science and religion' has a tendency towards disentanglement, where 'science' does one sort of thing and 'religion' another. And thirdly, the duo are frequently pushed towards some sort of attempted synthesis, wherein their aims either coincide or else are brought more closely together. In attempting something fresh, and different, this volume tries to move beyond tried and tested tropes. Bringing philosophy and theology to the fore in a way rarely attempted before, the book shows how fruitful new conversations between science and religion can at last move beyond the increasingly tired options of either conflict or dialogue.
The assessment of cognition is a key feature of study participant selection, evaluation, and characterisation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical drug trials. Measurement science requires using reliable, valid, and sensitive instruments for these purposes and typical trial measures, such as the ADAS-cog and MMSE, show adequate levels of reliability. Due to the absence of adequate indices of working memory, attention, and executive function, they cannot be considered valid tests. Further, scoring conventions and range restrictions limit their sensitivity. Hence a number of innovative solutions have been proposed and tested, with varying degrees of success. In this chapter we review critically cognitive measures such as the Neuropsychological Test Battery, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, and digital cognitive tests, such as those drawn from the CogState, CANTAB, and CDR systems. These measures are all considered with specific regard to issue of validity, assay sensitivity, and clinical relevance. We propose a methodology for establishing proof of concept for new chemical entities to rescue or preserve cognition in individuals living with AD.
An antiviral effect of lithium has been proposed, but never investigated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using electronic health records of 26 554 patients with documented serum lithium levels during the pandemic, we show that the 6-month COVID-19 infection incidence was lower among matched patients with ‘therapeutic’ (0.50–1.00) versus ‘subtherapeutic’ (0.05–0.50) lithium levels (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69–0.97, P = 0.017) and among patients with ‘therapeutic’ lithium levels versus matched patients using valproate (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.92, P = 0.0023). Lower rates of infection were observed for both new COVID-19 diagnoses and positive polymerase chain reaction tests, regardless of underlying psychiatric diagnosis and vaccination status.
There are concerns that eating disorders have become commoner during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using the electronic health records of 5.2 million people aged under 30, mostly in the USA, we show that the diagnostic incidence was 15.3% higher in 2020 overall compared with previous years (relative risk 1.15, 95% CI 1.12−1.19). The relative risk increased steadily from March 2020 onwards, exceeding 1.5 by the end of the year. The increase occurred solely in females, and primarily related to teenagers and anorexia nervosa. A higher proportion of patients with eating disorders in 2020 had suicidal ideation (hazard ratio HR = 1.30, 1.16−1.47) or attempted suicide (HR = 1.69, 1.21−2.35).
Incentivizing the development of interdisciplinary scientific teams to address significant societal challenges usually takes the form of pilot funding. However, while pilot funding is likely necessary, it is not sufficient for successful collaborations. Interdisciplinary collaborations are enhanced when team members acquire competencies that support team success.
We evaluated the impact of a multifaceted team development intervention that included an eight-session workshop spanning two half-days. The workshop employed multiple methods for team development, including lectures on empirically supported best practices, skills-based modules, role plays, hands-on planning sessions, and social interaction within and across teams. We evaluated the impact of the intervention by (1) asking participants to assess each of the workshop sessions and (2) by completing a pre/postquestionnaire that included variables such as readiness to collaborate, goal clarity, process clarity, role ambiguity, and behavioral trust.
The content of the team development intervention was very well received, particularly the workshop session focused on psychological safety. Comparison of survey scores before and after the team development intervention indicated that scores on readiness to collaborate and behavioral trust were significantly higher among participants who attended the workshop. Goal clarity, process clarity, and role ambiguity did not differ among those who attended versus those who did not.
Multicomponent team development interventions that focus on key competencies required for interdisciplinary teams can support attitudes and cognitions that the literature on the science of team science indicate are predictive of success. We offer recommendations for the design of future interventions.
Studying those who have achieved exceptional longevity can provide a model of successful ageing, however current research remains limited. Previous work on centenarians has primarily focused on depression and anxiety; life satisfaction remains understudied.
To compare the psychological profile of near-centenarians (95-99) and centenarians (100+) with and without dementia. To compare the psychological distress and life satisfaction in near-centenarians and centenarians without dementia with younger age groups. To identify the risk and protective factors of psychological distress and life satisfaction in near-centenarians and centenarians without dementia.
The Sydney Centenarian Study (SCS) collected data from 343 participants aged 95 years and older, of whom 119 had dementia. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Life satisfaction was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Persons aged 70-90 years from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) were used as a cross-sectional comparison group, for which dementia was an exclusion. Multiple linear regressions were undertaken to investigate the predictors for psychological distress and life satisfaction in SCS.
There was no significant difference in K10 or SWLS score between SCS participants with and without dementia. SCS participants without dementia reported significantly higher levels of psychological distress (15.3, 13.4, t=3.869, p<0.001) and life satisfaction (6.0, 5.6, t=5.835, p<0.001) compared to cognitively intact younger age groups in MAS. In SCS, a greater number of psychotropic medications and less contact with friends and family were associated with higher psychological distress. Higher scores on the Mini -Mental State Examination and greater contact with friends and family were associated with higher life satisfaction.
Psychological health was similar in near-centenarians and centenarians whether or not they had dementia. Although near-centenarians and centenarians without dementia demonstrated higher levels of psychological distress in the past 4 weeks than younger age groups, their satisfaction with life was higher. Social support and cognition may be protective factors against poor psychological health and promote greater life satisfaction. Factors identified as associated with psychological distress and life satisfaction may be targets for interventions to maintain good psychological health in this vulnerable population.
These are posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs of the wrist that show an extra-articular distal radius fracture. On the PA view, the radial height and inclination are maintained. On the lateral view, there is dorsal comminution with dorsal angulation of the distal radius. The radiographs also showed thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.