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The first principal part of this chapter explores sacred music in Wales from the Roman period to the English conquest. Christian observance in Wales may have been unbroken from the time of the Roman invasion onwards, and the four medieval cathedrals existed as sacred sites before Augustine’s mission of 578. Wales was part of the western Latin Church within the province of Canterbury. From the thirteenth century it was strongly influenced by the liturgical Use of Salisbury. However, only two substantial notated musical sources survive, both from the earlier fourteenth century: the Anian of Bangor Pontifical (with stronger provenance in East Anglia than Wales) and the Penpont antiphonal from the diocese of St Davids. This chapter considers their implications for our understanding of the repertoire and practice of sacred music in medieval Wales and also explores the role of the organ in the liturgy, drawing on the evidence of the pre-Reformation organ case at Old Radnor in Powys. The latter part of the chapter considers the effects of the Reformation on worship in Wales up to 1650. It examines compositions by John Lloyd, Philip ap Rhys and Elway Bevin, all of likely Welsh descent, and explains the significance of sources associated with Chirk Castle Chapel for understanding liturgical music in this period. After the Reformation, the English Book of Common Prayer was as alien as the Latin books it replaced in much of Wales. The Welsh translations of the Book of Common Prayer and the Bible were therefore crucial; the chapter concludes with an examination of Edmwnd Prys’ Welsh metrical psalter, Llyfr y Psalmau (1621).
The early fourteenth-century pontifical owned by Anian, bishop of Bangor, is an important source of late medieval chant and rituals. The activities of Welsh bishops as suffragans in English dioceses explain some of the unexpected contents and details, with two rites of the dead – one for a religious community using Romano-Franciscan chant, the other of the Use of Salisbury. Written c. 1315–20 as a coherent manuscript with one main scribe in the time of Anian II of Bangor, it was probably copied from a composite anthology compiled principally during the time of Anian I in the late thirteenth century. The ‘more-than-local’ pontifical is placed in the context of recently discovered fragments ‘local’ to the diocese of Salisbury, as well as certain Welsh and Irish adoptions and adaptations of Salisbury Use.
Agitation is a common complication of Alzheimer’s dementia (Agit-AD) associated with substantial morbidity, high healthcare service utilization, and adverse emotional and physical impact on care partners. There are currently no FDA-approved pharmacological treatments for Agit-AD. We present the study design and baseline data for an ongoing multisite, three-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of dronabinol (synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), titrated to a dose of 10 mg daily, in 80 participants to examine the safety and efficacy of dronabinol as an adjunctive treatment for Agit-AD. Preliminary findings for 44 participants enrolled thus far show a predominately female, white sample with advanced cognitive impairment (Mini Mental Status Examination mean 7.8) and agitation (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician Agitation subscale mean 14.1). Adjustments to study design in light of the COVID-19 pandemic are described. Findings from this study will provide guidance for the clinical utility of dronabinol for Agit-AD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02792257.
Three genera of gastropods described from the Lower Devonian Rockhouse Formation of Hardin County, Tennessee, currently are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of Platyceras (Visitator) Perner, 1911. Evaluation of the type specimens of these genera as well as types of two other gastropods from the same formation reveals the following: Platyostoma quadrangulare (Dunbar, 1920) is the only platyceratid gastropod among them; Saffordella tennessensis Dunbar, 1920 has a selenizone above midwhorl so it is an eotomarioidean belonging to the Gosseletinidae; Aulopea nelsoni Dunbar, 1920 and the lectotype of Distemnostoma princeps Dunbar, 1920 each has a broad subsutural sinus on the upper whorl surface similar to the Omphalotrochidae, as well as a basal sinus similar to certain primitive caenogastropods, so their systematic position is uncertain; I consider Holopea planidorsata Dunbar, 1920 to be a juvenile specimen of D. princeps; the fragmentary paralectotype of D. princeps possibly represents a gerontic form of Distemnostoma curtum Dunbar, 1920, which possesses a well-developed selenizone on an upwardly projecting shoulder at the edge of the upper whorl surface. Because D. curtum appears to be unrelated to D. princeps, the genotype of Distemnostoma, I propose the new generic name Omocordella for D. curtum. The new family Micromphalidae is erected to include Ordovician Slehoferia Rohr and Fryda, 2001, lower Carboniferous Micromphalus Knight, 1945, and Omocordella n. gen.
While there is increasing recognition among archaeologists of the extent to which non-agricultural societies have managed their terrestrial ecosystems, the traditional management of marine ecosystems has largely been ignored. In this paper, we bring together Indigenous ecological knowledge, coastal geomorphological observations, and archaeological data to document how Northwest Coast First Nations cultivated clams to maintain and increase productivity. We focus on “clam gardens,” walled intertidal terraces constructed to increase bivalve habitat and productivity. Our survey and excavations of clam gardens in four locations in British Columbia provide insights into the ecological and social context, morphology, construction, and first reported ages of these features. These data demonstrate the extent of traditional maricultural systems among coastal First Nations and, coupled with previously collected information on terrestrial management, challenge us to broaden our definition of “forager” as applied to Northwest Coast peoples. This study also highlights the value of combining diverse kinds of knowledge, including archaeological data, to understand the social and ecological contexts of traditional management systems.
The first starfish bed to be recognized from the Antilles is a lensoid body in the middle Miocene Grand Bay Formation of Carriacou, The Grenadines (West Indies). This unit was deposited in a turbidite basin in a region of active volcanism fed from one centre and preserves common deep-water taxa more typical of the Palaeozoic, such as crinoids and brachiopods. The starfish bed is a channel-fill deposit laid down in at least 150–200 m water depth, although the specimens may have been derived from shallower water. A goniasterid asteroid and an ophiacanthid ophiuroid have been recognized. The first articulated asteroid from the Antillean fossil record is Paragonaster(?) haldixoni sp. nov. In all skeletal features it appears close to the extant Atlantic species Paragonaster grandis H. L. Clark and P. subtilis (Perrier), but differs in having a single row of rectangular abactinal ossicles extending to the arm tip; these are longer than wide. The brittlestar, Ophiocamax ventosa sp. nov., is described on the basis of a fragmentary disc and arms from this deposit. The closest similarities are with the extant tropical western Atlantic species Ophiocamax hystrix Lyman and O. austera Verrill. However, the new species has thorns covering the entire surface of dorsal arm plates, while arm spines have a multitude of small thorns, loosely arranged in numerous rows and dorsal arm plate shape differs markedly. The occurrence of O. ventosa sp. nov. suggests that Ophiocamax has been a deep-sea taxon at least since the Miocene.
We have conducted a series of experiments designed to investigate elastic and electromagnetic (EM) velocity anisotropy associated with a preferentially aligned fracture system on a temperate valley glacier in south-central Alaska, USA. Measurements include a three-dimensional compressional wave (P-wave) seismic reflection survey conducted over a 300 m x 300 m survey patch, with uniform source grid and static checkerboard receiver pattern. Additionally, we acquired a multi-azimuth, multi-offset, polarimetric ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection experiment in a wagon-wheel geometry with 94° of azimuthal coverage. Results show azimuthal variation in the P-wave normal-moveout velocity of >3% (3765 and 3630 m s–1 in the fast and slow directions respectively) and difference of nearly 5% between the fast (0.164 m ns–1) and slow (0.156 m ns–1) EM velocities. Fracture orientations estimated from the GPR and seismic velocity data are consistent and indicate a preferred fracture orientation that is 30-45° oblique to glacier flow; these measurements agree with borehole observations. Anisotropic analysis of the polarimetric data gives a single volumetric water content estimate of 0.73 ±0.11%. We conclude that meaningful estimates of physical properties in glaciers based on EM or seismic velocity measurements require collecting data such that the presence of anisotropy can be evaluated and an anisotropic analysis employed when necessary.
Explanations for beveled blade edges on projectile points have been debated in North America archaeology since the first systematic description oflithic assemblages in the nineteenth century. Debate has centered around two opposing perspectives. One views beveled edges as features of projectile points that cause them to spin during flight. The other views beveling as a product of edge resharpening that is done unifacially to conserve scarce resources. Here we use a fluid-dynamics model to simulate the effect beveling has on projectiles. Expectations derived from this modeling are evaluated using windtunnel experiments. Our findings indicate that beveling produces in-flight rotation that serves as a means of increasing accuracy in relatively low-velocity flight paths.
On January 24, 1913, the trustees of the Dalcho School, a segregated, all-white public school in Dillon County, South Carolina, summarily dismissed Dudley, Eugene, and Herbert Kirby, ages ten, twelve, and fourteen, respectively. According to testimony offered in a subsequent hearing, the boys had “always properly behaved,” were “good pupils,” and “never …exercise[d] any bad influence in school.” Moreover, the boys’ overwhelmingly white ancestry, in the words of the South Carolina Supreme Court, technically “entitled [them] to be classified as white,” according to state law. Nevertheless, because local whites believed that the Kirbys were “not of pure Caucasian blood,” and that therefore their removal was in the segregated school's best interest, the court, in Tucker v. Blease (1914), upheld their expulsion.
Within the percolation and soaked facies of the Greenland ice sheet, the relationship between radar-derived internal reflection horizons and the layered structure of the firn column is unclear. We conducted two small-scale ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys in conjunction with 10 m firn cores that we collected within the percolation and soaked facies of the Greenland ice sheet. The two surveys were separated by a distance of ~50 km and ~340m of elevation leading to ~40 days of difference in the duration of average annual melt. At the higher site (~1997ma.s.l.), which receives less melt, we found that internal reflection horizons identified in GPR data were largely laterally continuous over the grid; however, stratigraphic layers identified in cores could not be traced between cores over any distance from 1.5 to 14.0 m. Thus, we found no correlation between firn core stratigraphy observed directly and radar-derived internal reflection horizons. At the lower site (~1660ma.s.l.), which receives more melt, we found massive ice layers >0.5m thick and stratigraphic boundaries that span >15m horizontally. Some ice layers and stratigraphic boundaries correlate well with internal reflection horizons that are laterally continuous over the area of the radar grid. Internal reflection horizons identified at ~1997ma.s.l. are likely annual isochrones, but the reflection horizons identified at ~1660ma.s.l. are likely multi-annual features. We find that mapping accumulation rates over long distances by tying core stratigraphy to radar horizons may lead to ambiguous results because: (1) there is no stratigraphic correlation between firn cores at the 1997 m location; and (2) the reflection horizons at the 1660m location are multi-annual features.