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The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
This manuscript is a personal tribute to Professor Marc de Leval from two of his colleagues: Professor Martin J. Elliott and Professor John E. Deanfield. As stated by the authors: “Marc’s career history is presented in the accompanying eulogy from the current Heart & Lung Team at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), allowing us to highlight Marc’s personal qualities that made him such an inspirational colleague. … Marc was, as we have said, the cardiologist’s surgeon. He was also the surgeon’s cardiologist, bridging the two disciplines and fusing the team. He was delighted by the advent of interventional cardiology and did not see it as a threat or competition, but instead, as appropriate for the well-being of his patients. He recognised how traumatic surgery could be for patients and their families and sought to avoid it whenever possible by alternative treatments. Marc will be remembered with love and admiration by his many patients and their families, whose lives he changed. His technical skill, energy, devotion, humour, intellect and influence will be sorely missed. May he rest in peace.”
The long-term outcome of patients with congenitally malformed hearts involving abnormal right ventricular morphology and haemodynamics is variable. In most instances, the patients are at risk for right ventricular failure, in part due to morphological differences between the right and left ventricles and their response to chronic volume and pressure overload. In patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and after balloon valvotomy for valvar pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary regurgitation is the most significant risk factor for right ventricular dysfunction. In patients with a dominant right ventricle after Fontan palliation, and in those with systemic right ventricles in association with surgically or congenitally corrected transposition, the right ventricle is not morphologically capable of dealing with chronic exposure to the high afterload of the systemic circulation. In patients with Ebstein’s malformation of the tricuspid valve, the degree of atrialisation of the right ventricle determines how well the right ventricle will function as the pump for the pulmonary vascular bed.
Exercise is of both physical and psychological benefit in children with congenital heart disease, leading to improved cardiovascular fitness and better quality of life. In such children, however, capacity for exercise is often impaired, and there is a risk of exercise-induced mortality or morbidity. We have reviewed the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in children with congenital heart defects and postoperative residua, and the role of exercise testing and training in their diagnosis and treatment. Some patients should be excluded absolutely from all but mild regular exercise because of known high risk; for example, those with severe aortic or subaortic stenosis. Other patients should be encouraged to participate in sports without any limitation; for example, those with small left-to-right shunts or mild valvar regurgitation. In many patients strict recommendations cannot be made, and one must consider the individual, the lesion and its hemodynamic implications, and the type and level of exercise contemplated. Children with congenital heart disease should be encouraged to participate in exercise and recreational sport within the limits provided by their cardiovascular defect. Understanding the pathophysiology of these defects, and knowledge of the risk of exercise in certain conditions, will allow the physician to make sensible recommendations for participation in exercise by individual patients.
A left-sided hepatic vein connected to the coronary sinus is reported in a case of a 22-month-old boy with isomerism of the left atrial appendages, complete atrioventricular septal defect and azygous continuation of the inferior caval vein. The diagnosis of the anomalous hepatic vein was made intraoperatively and successful biventricular repair has been accomplished. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first communication on this peculiar entity diagnosed during life, notwithstanding Nabarro's description of a similar autopsy finding in 1903. Aspects of the development of this rare entity are discussed.
Concern about long-term complications after intraatrial repair of complete transposition has been used as an argument in favor of “anatomic” repair by the arterial switch operation. Late arrhythmias, including loss of sinus rhythm and the development of supraventricular tachycardias, particularly atrial flutter, are widely reported after intraatrial repair. Despite modifications of technique, the electrophysiologic substrate for arrhythmia results from the extensive atrial surgery required. Arrhythmias occur, even in the “modern surgical era” after both Mustard and Senning operations, are progressive, and appear to be inevitable. The circulation after an intraatrial repair is more vulnerable to the effects of excessive tachycardia, and this may place the patient at risk from sudden cardiac death. Current attempts at individual stratification of risk are disappointing using even aggressive electrophysiologic approaches, and a combined assessment involving hemodynamics is likely to be necessary. The electrophysiologic and arrhythmic consequences of the arterial switch operation have been less extensively researched but, as might be expected, are quite different from those seen after intraatrial repair. The atrial activation sequence is relatively undisturbed, and sinus nodal dysfunction and supraventricular arrhythmia are uncommon. Ventricular extrasystoles are the arrhythmia most consistently found during the short follow-up currently available. In the longer term, myocardial ischemia, hemodynamic disturbances and autonomic imbalance may predispose to late arrhythmia. Current evidence would suggest that the lack of clinically significant arrhythmia and the restoration of the left ventricle to the systemic circulation are significant advantages of the arterial switch operation over intraatrial repair procedures.