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Surfaces and interfaces determine the performance and long-term durability of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In most cases, the surface chemical composition of the materials used in these electrochemical energy conversion devices shows significant deviations from the bulk chemistry. This might be as a result of surface cation segregation processes, as well as long-term surface poisoning due to external impurities. Both processes have implications for the electrochemical performance of the devices, leading to the degradation of the cell components. In order to suppress this degradation, an effort to lower the operation temperature to 500–800°C has been made. This article provides an overview of present research progress related to surface segregation and poisoning for low-temperature SOFCs.
La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.6Ni0.4O3-x - Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-x and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.8Co0.2O3-x - Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-x nanocomposites were synthesized via ultrasonic dispersion of nanocrystalline powders of perovskite and fluorite oxides in acetone with addition of a surfactant, followed by drying and sintering at temperatures up to 1200°C. The evolution of the structure of samples with sintering temperature was studied by XRD and TEM with EDX and compared with the data on conductivity, oxygen isotope exchange, O2 TPD, H2 and CH4 TPR. Preliminary testing of button-size cells with cathodes supported on thin YSZ layer covering Ni/YSZ cermet demonstrated a high and stable performance of LSNF–GDC composite promising for the practical application.
Twelve patients who feigned bereavement are described. Most appeared depressed on admission, and in over half bereavement was erroneously believed by staff to be an important cause of their depression. This type of behaviour, leading to admission to hospital, may be regarded as abnormal illness behaviour, and reasons are given for considering most of the cases as variants of the Münchausen syndrome. Motivation for these deceptions is discussed, and reference is made to features which might arouse suspicion that bereavement is feigned.
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