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Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (rh ≳ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.
This chapter concentrates on issues that arise from 6 months after transplant onwards and considers issues in the early post transplant period only insofar as they affect long-term management and outcome. With the advent of more powerful immunosuppressive medications and the expansion of the donor pool to include older donors with cardiovascular comorbidity, the impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on outcomes in deceased donor transplantation has diminished considerably. Chronic graft dysfunction is the progressive loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) beginning months or years after transplantation. Many centers now advocate screening, by urine cytology or BKV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the first 2 years after transplantation. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk focus on minimizing time on dialysis, prevention and aggressive treatment of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preservation of graft function. Women with renal transplants should be offered and encouraged to accept regular breast and cervical screening.