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We evaluated a cohort of 35 children diagnosed with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy with regard to physical and psychosocial well-being.
Material and Methods:
Patients wore an accelerometer to record their time involved in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Parents were also asked to describe if their child had changed their physical activity because of their diagnosis and how difficult and upsetting it was for the child to adapt to the physical activity recommendations.
Patients were involved in less moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day (35 min/day versus 55 min/day) and had lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total health scores (79 versus 84) compared to normative data. Overall, 51% of the cohort modified their physical activity in some way because of their diagnosis and changing physical activity was associated with lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory scores.
Our cohort was involved in less moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and had lower Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total health scores compared to normative paediatric data. Modifying one’s physical activity was associated with worse health-related quality of life scores, highlighting a vulnerable sub-group of children. These findings are useful for families and healthcare professionals caring for children who are adjusting to a new cardiac diagnosis of an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
This study identified factors that influenced physical activity (PA) participation among older adults from rural settings in Nova Scotia Canada and explored how the rural context may influence PA participation and promotion. Data were collected via individual semistructured interviews with 20 older adults (Mage = 77.5 years) from rural areas of Cape Breton and subjected to thematic analysis procedures (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Four themes representing factors that influence the prioritization of PA were identified: (1) historical context of activity, work, and productivity; (2) already busy with day-to-day activities; (3) being/staying on the go; and (4) cautionary approach. These findings suggest that PA promotion should be contextually salient, and highlight the need for a shared understanding between rural older adults and PA promoters regarding what constitutes being “physically active”. Effective promotion of PA among rural older adults may require a shift away from contemporary methods of PA promotion.
We report on the analysis of virtual powder-diffraction patterns from serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data collected at an X-ray free-electron laser. Different approaches to binning and normalizing these patterns are discussed with respect to the microstructural characteristics which each highlights. Analysis of SFX data from a powder of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 in this way finds evidence of other trace phases in its microstructure which was not detectable in a standard powder-diffraction measurement. Furthermore, a comparison between two virtual powder pattern integration strategies is shown to yield different diffraction peak broadening, indicating sensitivity to different types of microstrain. This paper is a first step in developing new data analysis methods for microstructure characterization from serial crystallography data.
To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age.
Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week.
Edmonton region, Canada.
Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007.
Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice.
Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.
The increasing prevalence of obesity among youth has elicited calls for schools to become more active in promoting healthy weight. The present study examined associations between various aspects of school food environments (specifically the availability of snack- and beverage-vending machines and the presence of snack and beverage logos) and students’ weight status, as well as potential influences of indices of diet and food behaviours.
A cross-sectional, self-administered web-based survey. A series of multinomial logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were constructed to examine associations between school environment variables (i.e. the reported presence of beverage- and snack-vending machines and logos) and self-reported weight- and diet-related behaviours.
Secondary schools in Alberta, Canada.
A total of 4936 students from grades 7 to 10.
The presence of beverage-vending machines in schools was associated with the weight status of students. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with students’ frequency of consuming vended goods. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with the frequency of salty snack consumption.
The reported presence of snack- and beverage-vending machines and logos in schools is related to some indices of weight status, diet and meal behaviours but not to others. The present study supported the general hypothesis that the presence of vending machines in schools may affect students’ weight through increased consumption of vended goods, but notes that the frequency of ‘junk’ food consumption does not seem to be related to the presence of vending machines, perhaps reflecting the ubiquity of these foods in the daily lives of students.
To assess the overall diet quality of a sample of adolescents living in Alberta, Canada, and evaluate whether diet quality, nutrient intakes, meal behaviours (i.e. meal skipping and consuming meals away from home) and physical activity are related.
A cross-sectional study design. Students completed the self-administered Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition (Web-SPAN). Students were classified as having poor, average or superior diet quality based on Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating (CFGHE).
One hundred and thirty-six schools (37 %) within forty-four public and private school boards (75 %) in Alberta, Canada.
Grade 7 to 10 Alberta students (n 4936) participated in the school-based research.
On average, students met macronutrient requirements; however, micronutrient and fibre intakes were suboptimal. Median CFGHE food group intakes were below recommendations. Those with poor diet quality (42 %) had lower intakes of protein, fibre and low-calorie beverages; higher intakes of carbohydrates, fat and Other Foods (e.g. foods containing mostly sugar, high-salt/fat foods, high-calorie beverages, low-calorie beverages and high-sugar/fat foods); a lower frequency of consuming breakfast and a higher frequency of consuming meals away from home; and a lower level of physical activity when compared with students with either average or superior diet quality.
Alberta adolescents were not meeting minimum CFGHE recommendations, and thus had suboptimal intakes and poor diet quality. Suboptimal nutritional intakes, meal behaviours and physical inactivity were all related to poor diet quality and reflect the need to target these health behaviours in order to improve diet quality and overall health and wellness.
In the 20th century, five species of birch-leafmining sawflies were inadvertently introduced from Europe to North America: Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén), Fenusa pumila Leach, Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), Fenusella nana (Klug), and Scolioneura vicina Konow. All have been recorded at outbreak levels in North America, and three (F. pumila, P. thomsoni, and H. nemoratus) have been the targets of successful biological control programs. The most recently detected species, F. nana and S. vicina, are good candidates for future biological control in Canada. We review the biology of all five of these birch-leafmining sawflies in North America and present keys to adults, larvae, and mines to aid correct identification.
A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is much more than just a tool for imaging the static state of materials. To demonstrate this, we present work on studying the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotube devices. Multiwall carbon nanotubes are concentrically stacked tubular sheets of graphite, where the spacing between each cylinder is simply the natural spacing of graphite. Using a custom-built in-situ nanomanipulation probe, we have shown that it is possible to slide the nanotube layers in a telescopic extension mode that exhibits low friction, demonstrating the potential of nanotubes as the ultimate synthetic nanobearing. During this telescopic extension, the electrical resistance of the nanotube devices increases, opening the possibility that these devices can also be used as nanoscale rheostats. We also briefly describe work on using electron holography inside a TEM to study the electric field distribution in nanotube field-emission devices and on using a nanotube itself as a biprism for electron holography. These measurements together demonstrate the wealth of information that can be obtained and frontiers that can be opened by putting operational nanodevices inside an electron microscope.
Lou, Abrami, Spence, Poulsen, Chambers, and d'Apollonia (1996) reported the findings from a quantitative review showing generally positive but variable effects of within-class grouping on pupil achievement and other outcomes. Replying in the National Institute Economic Review (July 1998), Prais argued for whole-class teaching claiming that we mis-summarised our findings. In this abbreviated rejoinder, we argue that our findings are: useful; not so variable as to be meaningless; provide evidence of beneficial effects for pupils of all relative abilities; are thorough and detailed; and provide a rather complete picture of the available evidence. In contrast, we believe that Prais (1998) has relied too heavily on conjecture and selective citation to offer a view of within-class grouping which is a serious mis-summarisation of the findings.
The exotic birch-leafmining sawflies Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier), Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), and Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallen) occurred in Alberta during 1992–1995, but only the first two were abundant. Birch-leafmining sawflies occurred at all sites surveyed in central and southern Alberta, and appeared to be expanding their ranges northward. Adult F. pusilla began emerging in mid-May (approximately 220 DD05), and there were one to three generations per year, depending on location and year. Female F. pusilla were relatively less abundant on young than on mature trees. Profenusa thomsoni began attacking trees in June (between 400 and 550 DD05), and was invariably univoltine. Both species were more abundant and were active earlier on urban trees than at a nearby rural location. The highest catches and most complete representations of seasonal activity were obtained using yellow sticky traps. Larval F. pusilla and P. thomsoni are unlikely to compete directly for leaf resources because their leafmining activities are separated spatially and temporally, but they probably compete intraspecifically.
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