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The impact of engineered products is a topic of concern in society. Product impact may fall under the categories of economic, environmental or social impact, with the last category defined as the effect of a product on the day-to-day life of people. Design teams lack sufficient tools to estimate the social impact of products, and the combined impacts of economic, environmental and social impacts for the products they are designing. This paper aims to provide a framework for the estimation of product impact during product design. To estimate product impact, models of both the product and society are required. This framework integrates models of the product, scenario, society and impact into an agent-based model to estimate product impact. Although this paper demonstrates the framework using only social impact, the framework can also be applied to economic or environmental impacts individually or all three concurrently. Agent-based modelling has been used previously for product adoption models, but it has not been extended to estimate product impact. Having tools for impact estimation allows for optimising the product design parameters to increase the potential positive impact and reduce potential negative impact.
There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
The eccentric orbits of the known extrasolar giant planets provide evidence that most planet-forming environments undergo violent dynamical instabilities. Here, we numerically simulate the impact of giant planet instabilities on planetary systems as a whole. We find that populations of inner rocky and outer icy bodies are both shaped by the giant planet dynamics and are naturally correlated. Strong instabilities – those with very eccentric surviving giant planets – completely clear out their inner and outer regions. In contrast, systems with stable or low-mass giant planets form terrestrial planets in their inner regions and outer icy bodies produce dust that is observable as debris disks at mid-infrared wavelengths. Fifteen to twenty percent of old stars are observed to have bright debris disks (at λ ~ 70μm) and we predict that these signpost dynamically calm environments that should contain terrestrial planets.
The growth and structural characterization of UHV-compatible LPCVD grown strained-Si layer on linearly graded relaxed SiGe layer and the electrical properties of the high-k ultrathin ZrO2 films deposited on strained-Si layer using microwave-plasma CVD at low temperature (150°C) are reported. The strained-Si layer has been characterized using AFM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The C-V and G-V characteristics of ZrO2 films have been used to calculate the interface trap density, Dit, near the midgap energy, and the fixed oxide charge density, Qf/q. These are found to be 2.24 × 1012 cm−2 eV−1 and 1.45 × 1011 cm−2, respectively. Poole-Frenkel (PF) conduction mechanism is found to dominate the current conduction at room temperature.
The effects of folate sufficiency and deficiency in three pathways of folate metabolism were studied in 2- and 3-week-old broiler chicks. Erythrocyte phosphoribosylpyrophosphate concentrations and dihydro- folate reductase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity were significantly elevated in folate deficiency. Percentage incorporation of deoxyuridine into bone marrow DNA was reduced in folate deficiency. There was a trend towards reduced liver dihydrofolate reductase activity in deficient chicks. These studies identify further biochemical criteria that can be used to assess folate status of chicks.