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Child maltreatment is characterized by a harmful relational environment which can have negative cascading consequences for the child’s development. Relationship-based interventions may improve maltreated children’s functioning by addressing key aspects of the parent-child relationship at various stages of development. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic review on relationship-based interventions for maltreated children and a meta-analysis on the impact of these interventions on observed parent-child relational behavior. Data collection consisted of a comprehensive literature search in six databases and contacting experts in the field and hand searching relevant publications. In total, 5,802 abstracts were screened, of which 81 relevant publications were identified, representing 4,526 participants. The meta-analysis found large improvements in observed parent interactive behavior (g = 0.888), smaller improvements in child attachment (g = 0.403) and child interactive behavior (g = 0.274). The effect on parent interactive behavior was larger in interventions addressing middle childhood. Risk of bias assessments showed that a large number of studies suffer from poor reporting, which limits the conclusions of the findings. Future research should examine parent-child relationship behavior across multiple developmental stages, as well as the impact of developmentally appropriate intervention elements on maltreated children.
Field studies were conducted at 35 sites throughout the north-central United States in 1998 and 1999 to determine the effect of postemergence glyphosate application timing on weed control and grain yield in glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate was applied at various timings based on the height of the most dominant weed species. Weed control and corn grain yields were considerably more variable when glyphosate was applied only once. The most effective and consistent season-long annual grass and broadleaf weed control occurred when a single glyphosate application was delayed until weeds were 15 cm or taller. Two glyphosate applications provided more consistent weed control when weeds were 10 cm tall or less and higher corn grain yields when weeds were 5 cm tall or less, compared with a single application. Weed control averaged at least 94 and 97% across all sites in 1998 and 1999, respectively, with two glyphosate applications but was occasionally less than 70% because of late emergence of annual grass and Amaranthus spp. or reduced control of Ipomoea spp. With a single application of glyphosate, corn grain yield was most often reduced when the application was delayed until weeds were 23 cm or taller. Averaged across all sites in 1998 and 1999, corn grain yields from a single glyphosate application at the 5-, 10-, 15-, 23-, and 30-cm timings were 93, 94, 93, 91, and 79% of the weed-free control, respectively. There was a significant effect of herbicide treatment on corn grain yield in 23 of the 35 sites when weed reinfestation was prevented with a second glyphosate application. When weed reinfestation was prevented, corn grain yield at the 5-, 10-, and 15-cm application timings was 101, 97, and 93% of the weed-free control, respectively, averaged across all sites. Results of this study suggested that the optimum timing for initial glyphosate application to avoid corn grain yield loss was when weeds were less than 10 cm in height, no more than 23 d after corn planting, and when corn growth was not more advanced than the V4 stage.
This essay examines the pre- and posthistory of The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789). Opening with a reconsideration of Vincent Carretta's influential claim that Equiano fabricated an African birthplace, I consider how Equiano's strategies of self-fashioning inform his trailblazing book tour of the British Isles in the early 1790s. If Equiano self-consciously designed his autobiography to become a best seller, his book tour performed the abolitionist manifesto that he was reluctant to put into print, as during his stops at cities and towns across the nation he worked to convert sympathetic readers into active abolitionists. Under the long shadow of the Pitt ministry's suppression of political activism in the 1790s, Equiano formed alliances with working-class and radical figures in Britain and Ireland, drawing on Shakespeare's Othello to develop a familiar public persona he could market during his book tour. (JB)
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