To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: The FIRST Trial is a 5-year study funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Our investigation is situated within a more extensive study to restrict fluoroquinolone antibiotics by requiring providers to obtain authorization from an infectious disease physician before prescribing fluoroquinolones. Our research team is performing a systematic evaluation to identify organizational characteristics and influencers of the fluoroquinolone preprescription authorization implementation process to understand variables that may facilitate or hinder implementation success. Methods: To address this critical gap, we present a qualitative analysis from our ongoing, multisite research project aimed at systematically assessing the adoption of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the form of an EHR-integrated best-practice alert (BPA) at each site to identify work system factors that impact uptake and variability in the implementation of the BPA at each location. The evaluation provides a detailed explanation of activities through the implementation process (eg, before implementation, during implementation, and after implementation) to assess how an organization effectively negotiates the phases and transitions, ultimately influencing the impact of the intervention. We have used a contextual determinant framework (CFIR) that has enabled us to perform a systematic and comprehensive exploration and identification of potential explanatory themes or variables to shed light on the complex social phenomenon of implementation. Results: Participants who will be a part of our poster presentation will learn about implementing a BPA, the potential barriers to implementation, and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Stakeholders within our study include site coordinators, medical doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and clinical informaticists. Our analysis synthesizes their experiences implementing and sustaining this evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship intervention. It includes (1) a detailed description of the process of change, (2) work-system factors (eg, inner setting and outer setting) that they believe influenced the success of the intervention, (3) barriers and facilitators (eg, CFIR constructs) within the implementation process; and (4) description of how these could have influenced the outcomes of interest (eg, implementation and intervention effectiveness). Conclusions: Our research is expected to advance patient safety research and initiatives by providing a more robust approach to performing systematic intervention evaluations. By outlining stakeholders’ experiences within our study, implementation leaders within healthcare systems will utilize our findings to aid them in their design and implementation process when designing and implementing similar types of healthcare interventions.
In 1800 George III appointed a Commission to consider The State of the Public Records of this Kingdom, and the Necessity of providing for the better Arrangement, Preservation, and more convenient Use of the same’. These records were ‘in many Offices unarranged, undescribed, and unascertained’, and were also exposed to the dangers of ‘Erasure, Alteration, and Embezzlement’ and destruction by damp or fire.
In 1812 this Commission printed and published a transcript of the Hundred Rolls of 1274, containing the evidence obtained by an Inquisition set up by Edward I in that year. The reasons for the inquisition are given in the introduction to the published volume as follows:
‘During the turbulent Reign of King Henry the 3rd, the revenues of the Crown had been considerably diminished by Tenants in Capite alienating without Licence; and by Ecclesiastics, as well as Laymen, withholding from the Crown under various Pretexts its just Rights, and usurping the Right of holding Courts and other Jura Regalia. Numerous Exactions and Oppressions of the People had also been committed in this Reign, by the Nobility and Gentry claiming the Rights of free Chace, free Warren, and Fishery, and demanding unreasonable Tolls in Fairs and Markets; and again, by Sheriffs, Escheators, and other Officers and Ministers of the Crown, under Colour of Law.’
A second inquisition of 1279, with slightly different terms of reference, was printed in 1818. The 1274 Inquisition deals with the whole county; what survives of the 1279 Inquisition deals in considerably more detail with the Hundreds of Stodden (with Bucklow) and Willey in the north-west comer of the county.
The texts were printed in ‘record type’, which reproduces the original Latin manuscript, with special type for the conventional abbreviations. Today very few general readers can translate such a text, and so the English version below has been produced for the use of present-day local historians. The volumes and the pages relating to Bedfordshire are:
Rotuli Hundredorum edited by W. Illingworth and J. Caley, 2 volumes: 1812 pp 1-8; 1818 pp 321-33.
In the translation, some freedom has been allowed when the meaning is quite clear, but when this is in any doubt, the original Latin has been followed as closely as possible.
The study of the economic position of the beneficed clergy in the early sixteenth century is hindered by the scarcity of surviving accounts. Assessments for taxation, such as the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535, can tell us a great deal about the comparative values of benefices but they provide little detail about the sources of revenue, the means by which that revenue was collected, or the various items of expenditure which had to be met out of the incumbent’s income. In his survey of medieval clerical accounts, Mr Heath described six documents, ranging in date from 1414 to 1520. The three Blunham accounts printed here, dated 1520, 1534 and 1538-9, bear many similarities to those discussed by Mr Heath and they provide valuable evidence for a study of the finances of a comparatively wealthy benefice during the Reformation period.
They were among the archives of the Grey family of Wrest Park deposited at the Bedfordshire County Record Office by the Rt Hon the Lady Lucas, and have the catalogue numbers L 26/232, L 254 and L 26/1407.
The rectory of Blunham was one of the wealthiest livings in Bedfordshire. At the time of the Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV of 1291, it was one of the ten most valuable benefices in the archdeaconry of Bedford; its assessment of £20 annual value was exceeded only by the rectories of Felmersham and Shillington. The Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535 assessed Blunham at £46 13s 4d, a valuation exceeded in Bedfordshire only by the rectory of Shillington.
The rector of Blunham during the period covered by these three accounts was Master William Wittur. An Oxford graduate, he had by 1514 attained the degree of Doctor of Canon Law. He was instituted to the rectory of Blunham in March 1514, on the presentation of Henry Grey esquire, and held the living until his death in 1542. It would seem unlikely, however, that Wittur was responsible for the compilation of these three accounts. The 1520 document records the receipt of tithes and offerings by John Cawt, the parochial chaplain or, as he described himself, ‘gubemator animarum’. The account for 1534 was clearly drawn up by the bailiff of Sir Henry Grey of Wrest, the patron of the living, and the same would appear to be true of the 1538-9 account.
This selection of early documents, transcribed and translated from Latin by John Thompson, includes the Hundred Rolls of 1274 and 1279 (taken from the Record Commission's editions of 1812 and 1818); account rolls for Higham Gobion and Streatley 1379-82; tithe and expenditure accounts for Blunham Rectory 1520-39; Turvey churchwardens' accounts 1551-2; Bedfordshire archidiaconal visitations 1578; and Eggington manor court rolls 1297-1572.
This account roll [BCRO cat. no. BS 1175] contains accounts for the manor and grange of Higham Gobion, and also accounts dealing with Streatley, for the years 1379-1382. It was deposited at the Bedfordshire County Record Office in March 1940 by the London solicitors, Messrs Farrer & Co., as part of an archive of about 110 deeds and documents relating to Higham Gobion manor and rectory and Streatley manor dating from 1379 to 1595.
The parish of Higham Gobion originally lay in three detached parts, of which the largest, containing the church, the present manor farm house, and the old rectory house, was bounded south and west by Barton in the Clay, north by Silsoe and Gravenhurst, and east by Shillington and by Hexton in Hertfordshire. To the west lay two smaller areas: the first, containing the site of a deserted hamlet, and also Faldo Farm, presumably the site of the manor of Westhey and Faldo, is bounded south and east by Barton, west by Pulloxhill and north by Silsoe; further west is the second detached area, containing Higham Bury, and bounded north-west by Flitton, south-west by Westoning, south by Harlington and east by Pulloxhill. This contained also Gubbins (for Gobions) Wood.
The manor of Higham was by 1158 in the hands of the Gobion family, from whom the parish derives its name. This family had acquired also by 1158 the nearby manor of Streatley with Sharpenhoe. Richard Gobion died in 1300, and his heirs were his two daughters of whom Hawisa, the elder, was the wife of Ralph Butler, and to her and her descendants came these two main manors. Ralph Butler died in 1342 leaving a son, Sir John Butler, but it would appear that both Higham Gobion and Streatley with Sharpenhoe continued in the hands of Hawisa until her death in 1360. By then the son, Sir John, had predeceased her, as had Sir John’s own elder son, Ralph, and so the two manors came to a second grandson, Ralph’s younger brother, Sir Edward. Sir Edward eventually died without issue in 1412, and it was, therefore, for Sir Edward Butler that these accounts were made.
This collection of records of proceedings of the court of the manor of Eggington was deposited at Bedfordshire Record Office in November 1963 by Messrs. Lovel Smeathman & Son of Hemel Hempstead who had acted as stewards for the manor. It comprises sixteen parchment membranes numbered X310/1/1-16 and containing a record of 32 courts dated from 1297 to 1572. The membranes have been numbered 1 to 16 and stitched together at the head, but this has been done since their deposit at Bedford. In addition, four paper documents numbered X310/2-6, which are draft records of the court proceedings entered on the membranes numbered 12,14,15 and 16, have been used in connection with the translation and interpretation of the records of the relevant courts.
At one time the collection was definitely associated with papers forming part of the collection of the solicitors Messrs. E. T. Ray of Leighton Buzzard (RY at the Bedfordshire Record Office). The Ray papers (RY 2-99), which include some 17th century extracts made from the rolls, constitute a corpus of material relating largely to the title and administration of the Eggington manorial land, inter alia, in the 17th and 18th centuries. A schedule in the collection lists Court Rolls of the manor of ‘Egginton’ up to 1728 but no ‘roll’ later than 1630 exists in the Ray papers and those brief court records extant from 1578 to 1630 consist of seven small parchment documents forming part of an original file of steward’s papers. Paper drafts of 19 courts held up until 1860, however, exist in the Lovel Smeathman deposit (being catalogued as X310/2-23) along with a sizeable set of rentals of quit rents from 1540/1 up to 1859 (X310/26-48). It may be, on the basis of the evidence of the rolls written up from the paper drafts discussed below, that fair copies were never written up from the drafts after 1572.
Eggington is a small village in the south-west comer of Bedfordshire, near Leighton Buzzard and the Buckinghamshire border. Formerly a hamlet in the ancient parish of Leighton its population in 1801 was 206 and an estimated figure for the late 17th century, based on the Hearth Tax returns, is 115. The earliest reference to the history of the manor of Eggington in the Victoria County History (V.C.H.) dates back only to 1518 when it is recorded as having been in the possession of William Man, which agrees with court 14a in this collection.
Among the records of the Bedford Archdeaconry deposited at the Bedfordshire County Record Office is a volume (cat. no. ABC 3) containing court proceedings for the archdeaconry in 1578. It contains also on pp. 3-13 and 206-215 the presentments of churchwardens at the archidiaconal visitations in April and October 1578, which are transcribed below.
Detecta in Visitatione domini Archidiaconi Bedd’ 8 et 9 Aprilis anno 1578
Felmersham Richard Leache, Robert Rotham, and Thomas Leache have not receaved the Communion at Easter last. William Burye, Thomas Hodsone, Robert Otwaye & his wife for the lyke offence.
Bedford Cutbertes Carent multis necessarijs, vide billam.
Farandiche The chancell & parsonage are in decaye by the parson’s defalt. They have but one sermon this year.
Wooton The chancell is in decaye at the Quene’s defalte. William Borne of Marston detayneth a legacye of iijs iiijd by the yeare for the poore of Wotton. He is behinde for xx yeares.
Turvey Adre Cooper was gotten with childe in Turvey by Thomas Parkins of Hygham.
Patnam [Pavenham] Our chansell is in decaye & redye to faule downe, at the defaute of Trynitye College in Cambridge.
Bletsoo We present our parson for cuttinge tymber of all the parsonage grownds. Our chancell is a little oute of repayre.
Bidnam We doe present that we had no Communion but once this yeare, and that our last churchwardens dyd not make there accompte for the yere, Thomas Wryghte, Bartholomewe Brytten.
Chellington Our chancell is in decaye at the parson’s defalte, but the parson hathe begone to mende hit. Our churche wyndowes want glasinge. Our parson hathe ij benefycyes.
Carelton Our cancell is in decaye at our parson’s defalte. Henrye Bytheraye & his wyfe doe lyve asunder, & that our parson hathe ij benefycyes & he is not resydent with us.
Kempstone Joanes A Hewe is suspected to lyve incontynentlye with a wydowe, she is called by the name of Williamsonne’s daughter, as the common fame goeth within the parish.
Bedford Sancti Petri[sic]There is no pulpitte in the littel churche. The x commandments are not on the walles. The chancell & churche are not paved in some places.
Bedford Peters[sic] Rafe Wylson kepte Davys Buckham his wyfe in his howse, he hathe had waminge to put hir awaye & wyll not.
Because of the rarity and importance of early churchwardens’ accounts, the surviving Bedfordshire material was published by the Society in 1953. Elizabethan Churchwardens’ Accounts edited by the Rev. J.E. Farmiloe and Rosita Nixseaman (BHRS Vol. 33) included full transcripts of the accounts for three parishes in the east of the County, namely Clifton 1543, 1589-1608, Northill 1561-1612, and Shillington 1571-1604. The volume also included an analytical introduction.
When these accounts were published in 1953 the existence of the Turvey accounts for 1551-2 was unknown. They survive among the Stopford-Sackville manuscripts at the Northamptonshire Record Office (ref: SS 1808), and consist of three pages tom from an account book. The pages are 12 inches high and were originally about 4½ inches wide. The inclusion of the accounts in this volume completes the publication of the Bedfordshire material of the period before 1600.
The entries are dated 1551-1552 and are written partly in English and partly in Latin, all in a difficult hand. The Latin passages, which have been translated into modem English, are shown in italics. They usually deal with formal matters such as meetings and statements of accounts. The original spelling has been retained for the passages in English, although contracted forms of Christian names have been replaced by the full names in modem spelling.
Although they cover an unsettled period in English religious history, these accounts contain little to indicate the prevailing climate of uncertainty and change. There are, however, clues. In addition to the name of Richard Woodford, the Rector, and his churchwardens, the accounts also mention the ‘collectors of the towne rentes’ suggesting that the church was well endowed with property, and in 1551 there is a reference to the ‘wardens of the sepulcre lyght’.
In 1552 there is a payment of two shillings and ten pence ‘in hamyst [earnest] at Bedfforde a Fore the Kinges Jstys [Justice] ffor … chorche goodes the exspenses’ — undoubtedly a reference to the compilation of the Edwardian Inventories of church goods in that year. Sadly the actual return for Turvey has not survived.
In general, however, the accounts deal largely with routine matters such as Visitation expenses, minor repairs to the church, work on the bells, washing the surplice, and purchase of bread and wine for the communion.
Health equity research spans various disciplines, crossing formal organizational and departmental barriers and forming invisible communities. This study aimed to map the nomination network of scholars at the University of Rochester Medical Center who were active in racial and ethnic health equity research, education, and social/administrative activities, to identify the predictors of peer recognition.
We conducted a snowball survey of faculty members with experience and/or interest in racial and ethnic health equity, nominating peers with relevant expertise.
Data from a total of 121 individuals (64% doing research on extent and outcomes of racial/ethnic disparities and racism, 48% research on interventions, 55% education, and 50% social/administrative activities) were gathered in six rounds of survey. The overlap between expertise categories was small with coincidence observed between education and social/administrative activities (kappa: 0.27; p < 0.001). Respondents were more likely to nominate someone if both were involved in research (OR: 3.1), if both were involved in education (OR: 1.7), and if both were affiliated with the same department (OR: 3.7). Being involved in health equity research significantly predicted the centrality of an individual in the nomination network, and the most central actors were involved in multiple expertise categories.
Compared with equity researchers, those involved in racial equity social/administrative activities were less likely to be recognized by peers as equity experts.
As COVID-19 was declared a health emergency in March 2020, there was immense demand for information about the novel pathogen. This paper examines the clinician-reported impact of Project ECHO COVID-19 Clinical Rounds on clinician learning. Primary sources of study data were Continuing Medical Education (CME) Surveys for each session from the dates of March 24, 2020 to July 30, 2020 and impact surveys conducted in November 2020, which sought to understand participants’ overall assessment of sessions. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney testing. Qualitative data were analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. Clinicians rated their knowledge after each session as significantly higher than before that session. 75.8% of clinicians reported they would ‘definitely’ or ‘probably’ use content gleaned from each attended session and clinicians reported specific clinical and operational changes made as a direct result of sessions. 94.6% of respondents reported that COVID-19 Clinical Rounds helped them provide better care to patients. 89% of respondents indicated they ‘strongly agree’ that they would join ECHO calls again.COVID-19 Clinical Rounds offers a promising model for the establishment of dynamic peer-to-peer tele-mentoring communities for low or no-notice response where scientifically tested or clinically verified practice evidence is limited.
Working memory (WM) is our limited-capacity storage and processing (memory) system that permeates essential facets of our cognitive life such as arithmetic calculation, logical thinking, decision-making, prospective planning, language comprehension, and production. Since the very inception of WM in the early 1960s (Miller et al., 1960), its role in language acquisition and processing has been extensively investigated both empirically and theoretically by researchers from diverse fields of psychology and linguistics, accumulating an increasingly huge body of literature (e.g., see Baddeley, 2003; Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993 for reviews of early studies). Notwithstanding, the field still lacks a comprehensive and updated profile of conceptualizing and implementing working memory in the broad domains of native and second language acquisition, processing, impairments, and training. In this chapter, we introduce a comprehensive handbook in which key areas of inquiry and practice in working memory and language are at the forefront and theoretical ingenuity and empirical robustness are integrated throughout.