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Macrolophus pygmaeus, a predatory mirid used to manage greenhouse whitefly, was illegally imported into New Zealand, and for a time was reared and sold to commercial tomato growers. We designed and implemented a risk-based detection survey to determine whether M. pygmaeus was still present in New Zealand a decade later. The survey was designed to have an 80% chance of detecting a single low density (0.05 per lineal metre of host plants) population within 1 km of known points of introduction. The survey was implemented between 8 and 15 March 2018. Local habitat constraints meant that the planned sampling had to be modified but this was accounted for in the subsequent analysis. No M. pygmaeus were found in the samples, but 93 specimens from seven other mirid taxa were detected, validating the sample methods. The survey gives 60% confidence that M. pygmaeus was not present at a mean density of 0.05 per lineal metre of habitat. It gives 80% confidence that a population at 0.1 m−1 was not present and 90% confidence that no population exists at >0.18 m−1. Though there are no published data on typical field population densities of M. pygmaeus, for related species the survey would have had high confidence in detecting any medium to high density population present. Therefore, it is likely that M. pygmaeus is no longer present in New Zealand, but if extant within the sampled areas then we have high certainty that it was at low densities compared to other predaceous mirids.
The end of the last Ice Age in Britain (c. 11500 BP) created major disruption to the biosphere. Open habitats were succeeded by more wooded landscapes, and changes occurred to the fauna following the abrupt disappearance of typical glacial herd species, such as reindeer and horse (Conneller & Higham 2015). Understanding the impact of these changes on humans and how quickly they were able to adapt may soon become clearer, due to recent discoveries in the Colne Valley on the western edge of Greater London, north of the River Thames. An exceptionally well-preserved open-air site was discovered in 2014 as part of a wider project of archaeological investigation and excavation carried out by Wessex Archaeology (2015), on behalf of CEMEX UK. The site, at Kingsmead Quarry in Horton, is unusual because it has good organic preservation and, in addition to worked flint artefacts, it has yielded groups of articulated horse bone. The extreme rarity of such sites of this period in Britain makes this discovery especially significant and re-emphasises the potential importance of the Colne Valley (Lacaille 1963; Lewis 2011; Morgi et al. 2011).
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson and others are explaining divergent economic histories with qualitative measures of institutional quality – including Acemoglu and Robinson's popular inclusive/extractive dichotomy. While quantitative studies have sort to confirm these links using econometric proxies, few empirical accounts have shown how these proxies, or indeed the institutions they seek to represent actually influenced economic growth. This study helps fill that gap by testing whether evidence in Zambia's post-colonial history supports a proposed econometric link between its institutional quality and its slow economic growth. Support for this link is found in foreign investors’ interpretation of declining institutional constraint on Zambia's President as the potential for increased policy volatility, and as such an economic inducement to delay critical investment to Zambia's capital constrained economy. These findings add weight to the institutional argument in general, as well as present one concrete example in history of a mechanism through which institutional quality affected economic growth.
The oldest explanation of the longer Greek canon rests on attributing great importance to the difference between the Hellenised Jews of the diaspora, and especially the community based in Alexandria, in Egypt, and the non- Hellenised Jews of Palestine. Widespread dissemination of books tends to suggest that they have a high level of authority and popularity. There are manuscripts containing all or part of all the books now in the Hebrew Bible except Esther, with a particularly high occurrence of the Pentateuch and the Psalms. The translation of texts into another language generally implies that they are accorded a high status, and the very existence of the Greek Bible is a testimony to the status of the Old Testament books. Jewish and Christian writers use incidents in the Pentateuch and historical books to illustrate how a good life should be lived and sins avoided.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
In modern times Amos has come to be considered one of the most important prophets, mainly for his uncompromising message about social justice. This book provides a detailed exploration of this theme and other important elements of the theology underlying the book of Amos. It also includes chapters on the text itself, providing a critical assessment of how the book came to be, the original message of Amos and his circle, which parts of the book may have been added by later scribes, and the finished form of the book. The author also considers the book's reception in ancient and modern times by interpreters as varied as rabbis, the Church Fathers, the Reformers and liberation theologians. Throughout, the focus is on how to read the book of Amos holistically to understand the organic development of the prophet's message through the many stages of the book's development and interpretation.
There are two ways of regarding the relationship between the theology of the book of Amos and our own theological thinking. One is the “canonical” way. Here, we interpret the book explicitly from a faith position, and seek to integrate its theology into a pan-biblical theology, which is also consistent with Christian faith as we understand it. We have seen, in Chapter 5, that this is a perfectly possible route to understanding the book. The problem with it is that it becomes difficult to hear the book as saying anything different, or at least radically different, from what we already believe on other grounds. It takes its place within the canon of Scripture as a partial witness to Christian truth, and needs to be read within (and constrained by) that matrix.
The alternative is to think about the book’s theology as it emerges from a relatively uncommitted examination, and to ask whether that theology has anything still to contribute to modern theological thinking. This alternative route is open to the criticism that it is not how the faith community ever read Scripture in the past. Amos was never understood by past generations of Christians on the basis of what could be reconstructed of the book’s theology by historical-critical methods, but only as part of canonical Scripture. Once we detach it from that context, then the question arises why we should be interested in its theology anyway. It becomes simply an old religious text, and probably a not very important one.
So far, we have looked at what modern scholarship can tell us of the original
teaching of Amos against its contemporary background, and of the meaning the
book acquired through its various stages of redaction and incorporation into the
collection that is the Old Testament. But how did past readers receive and
understand what the book was saying?
Amos in Ancient Israel, in the Early Church, and at Qumran
In one sense, Amos was a very important theological influence on those who came
after him. Even in the eighth century, there is good reason to think that Isaiah
was familiar with his words, as was argued by Reinhard Fey back in 1963. A
message of uncompromising doom becomes normative for biblical prophecy, as we
read in the story of Jeremiah’s confrontation with Hananiah:
Then the prophet Jeremiah spoke to the prophet Hananiah in the presence of
the priests and all the people who were standing in the house of the
Lord; and the prophet Jeremiah said,
“Amen! May the Lord do so; may the
Lord fulfill the words that you have
prophesied, and bring back to this place from Babylon the vessels of the
house of the Lord, and all the exiles. But listen
now to this word that I speak in your hearing and in the hearing of all the
people. The prophets who preceded you and me from ancient times prophesied
war, famine, and pestilence against many countries and great kingdoms. As
for the prophet who prophesies peace, when the word of that prophet comes
true, then it will be known that the Lord has truly
sent the prophet.” (Jer 28:5–9)
A study devoted to the “The Theology of the Book of
Amos” sounds as though it is meant to bypass the issues that have
normally been the preserve of “the historical-critical method”
– issues about the historical origins of the book, the context in which
the prophet lived and worked, and the possibility of additions and changes to
his original words. Contemporary biblical study has rightly put back on the
agenda the need to interpret the finished product, the book as it lies before us
when we open a Bible, and not to spend all our energies on
“genetic” questions about how the book came to be, or on trying to
identify an original core. But these conventional critical issues cannot be
easily bypassed. Most books in the Old Testament are almost certainly the result
of a long period of compilation, and the various stages through which they
passed have implications for their meaning even as they now stand. In turn,
intuitions about their meaning often condition our hypotheses about how they
came to be. So we cannot avoid discussing historical-critical matters as a
prelude to trying to analyze the theology of this prophetic book. In point of
fact, this, too, is part of the mandate of the present series in which the
present book is appearing.
The interwovenness of interpretative and critical issues can be seen most clearly
if we begin with the most extreme critical positions. There are still scholars
who defend the derivation of the entire book, or all but a few small fragmentary
additions, from the eighth-century prophet Amos himself: examples include John
H. Hayes and Shalom M. Paul. For them, the prophet delivered a message to both
the Hebrew kingdoms, which included both judgment to come and a following period
of peace and prosperity – which is how the message of most biblical
prophets appears in the books as we now have them. In this view, because it is
quite thinkable that Amos would have uttered this combined message of judgment
and hope, there is no reason to “delete” (to use the older
critical vocabulary) the “epilogue” in 9:11–15 from the
book as a later addition.