Human strongyloidiasis is a serious disease mostly attributable to Strongyloides stercoralis and to a lesser extent Strongyloides fuelleborni, a parasite mainly of non-human primates. The role of animals as reservoirs of human-infecting Strongyloides is ill-defined, and whether dogs are a source of human infection is debated. Published multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) studies attempt to elucidate relationships between Strongyloides genotypes, hosts, and distributions, but typically examine relatively few worms, making it difficult to identify population-level trends. Combining MLST data from multiple studies is often impractical because they examine different combinations of loci, eliminating phylogeny as a means of examining these data collectively unless hundreds of specimens are excluded. A recently-described machine learning approach that facilitates clustering of MLST data may offer a solution, even for datasets that include specimens sequenced at different combinations of loci. By clustering various MLST datasets as one using this procedure, we sought to uncover associations among genotype, geography, and hosts that remained elusive when examining datasets individually. Multiple datasets comprising hundreds of S. stercoralis and S. fuelleborni individuals were combined and clustered. Our results suggest that the commonly proposed ‘two lineage’ population structure of S. stercoralis (where lineage A infects humans and dogs, lineage B only dogs) is an over-simplification. Instead, S. stercoralis seemingly represents a species complex, including two distinct populations over-represented in dogs, and other populations vastly more common in humans. A distinction between African and Asian S. fuelleborni is also supported here, emphasizing the need for further resolving these taxonomic relationships through modern investigations.