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In the Anisakidae family, there are nematodes, most of which are parasitic for important commercial fish species. Both public health risks and socio-economic problems are attributed to these parasites. Despite these concerns, knowledge of the metabolism of these parasites remains unknown. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the receptors of drugs and oxidative metabolic status of two Anisakidae species, Pseudoterranova decipiens (s. s.) and Contracaecum osculatum (s. s.), under the influence of anthelminthic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR), at different concentrations: 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25 μg mL−1 of culture medium for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 72 h. The mRNA expressions of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, acetylcholine receptor subunits, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters and antioxidative enzymes were determined. The total antioxidant capacity and glutathione S-transferase activity were also examined. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that IVM and PYR have been tested against these parasitic nematodes.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Cod was one of the most important fish species in the Baltic Sea, but its condition is deteriorating for several reasons, including an increasing parasite burden. The aim of this study was to determine the source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites by examination of invertebrates found in situ in the cod stomach. A total of 1681 cod were sampled during four research cruises in the southern Baltic Sea in 2012, 2013 and 2014 and the composition of their diet was analysed. Each prey item from cod stomach was identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level and a parasitological analysis of all invertebrates collected was performed. Crangon crangon, Saduria entomon and Mysis mixta were the most commonly represented invertebrates among food items. Hysterothylacium aduncum was found only in C. crangon. This host–parasite system is reported here for the first time in situ in the stomach of cod from the Baltic Sea, confirming the role of C. crangon in cod infection with H. aduncum.
There is a growing number of studies showing interactions between genetic polymorphisms associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission and traumatic life events (TLEs) on a risk of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) have been associated both with TLEs as well as with PLEs. However, it remains unknown what is the role of ASEs in the complexity of gene–environment interactions on the emergence of PLEs.
Patients and methods
We included 445 young adults—university students from three big cities in Poland. We used the Traumatic Events Checklist to assess TLEs, the Inventory of Psychotic-Like anomalous self-experiences in order to measure ASEs, and the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ16) to record the level of PLEs. The following gene polymorphisms, related to dopaminergic neurotransmission, were determined: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphism, the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) rs6277 polymorphism, and the dopamine transporter 1 (DAT1) rs28363170 polymorphism.
There was a significant effect of the interaction between the DAT1 polymorphism, a severity of ASEs, and a history of TLEs on the level of PLEs. Among the DAT1 10R/10R homozygotes with low level of ASEs, a severity of PLEs was significantly higher in individuals with a history of any TLEs. Higher scores of the PQ16 were associated with a greater severity of ASEs both in the DAT1 9R allele carriers and the DAT1 10R/10R homozygotes.
Our findings imply that genetic liability related to aberrant dopamine transport might impact the association between TLEs and PLEs in subjects with high levels of ASEs.
Cod (Gadus morhua), an important fish species in the Baltic Sea, is the paratenic host for many parasite species, including the zoonotic nematodes, Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum osculatum. We aimed to identify which invertebrate species (found in situ in the fish stomach) are responsible for infection of cod with zoonotic nematodes. We found that Crangon crangon and Gammarus sp., both invertebrate prey species of cod, were infected with Anisakis simplex and C. osculatum, respectively. These host–parasite systems are reported here for the first time, implicating C. crangon and Gammarus sp. as sources of infection of Baltic cod with zoonotic nematodes.
The main aim of this research was investigation of the processing-structure-property relationship for polymer blends. The paper presents the results of tests on the structure, basic physical and porous properties of polymer films blend of low density polyethylene (LDPE) with poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP). Studies utilizing LDPE/PMP blends were undertaken to investigate a three-stage process: melt-extrusion/annealing/uniaxial-stretching (MEAUS), and a two-stage process: melt-extrusion/uniaxial and biaxial stretching (MEUS and MEUBS), used to produce porous films. The permeability and porosity results coupled with small-angle x-ray scattering data provide a direct connection between changes in microstructure to the observed changes in gas transport properties.
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