Cod (Gadus morhua), an important fish species in the Baltic Sea, is the paratenic host for many parasite species, including the zoonotic nematodes, Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum osculatum. We aimed to identify which invertebrate species (found in situ in the fish stomach) are responsible for infection of cod with zoonotic nematodes. We found that Crangon crangon and Gammarus sp., both invertebrate prey species of cod, were infected with Anisakis simplex and C. osculatum, respectively. These host–parasite systems are reported here for the first time, implicating C. crangon and Gammarus sp. as sources of infection of Baltic cod with zoonotic nematodes.