To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Giant chickweed [Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench], a troublesome broadleaf weed species, is widespread in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields in China. However, limited information is available on its germination and seedling emergence ecology. Thus, three M. aquaticum populations (JS, HN, and AH) from different geographic regions were studied under laboratory conditions to determine the effects of different environmental factors on germination or seedling emergence. The seeds germinated at a relatively wide constant temperature range of 5 to 25 C; however, the optimal temperature for germination varied among the populations. Compared with constant temperatures, fluctuating temperatures with the same mean significantly improved the final germination of all populations. Light was not required for germination. The seeds germinated under a wide pH range of 3 to 10, and the optimum pH was 6 to 7, with a final germination percentage of 81% to 95%. The seeds of all populations showed similar sensitivities to osmotic potential and similar high tolerances of saline conditions. The seedling emergence of all populations decreased with increasing burial depth, and no emergence was observed when the seeds were buried more than 3 cm, but the AH population showed higher sensitivity to burial depth than the others. The results generated from this study will contribute to the development of integrated M. aquaticum management strategies for winter wheat fields in China, and deep plowing and late sowing of autumn-sown wheat are suggested for managing M. aquaticum, as it showed lower germination at a low temperature and under relatively deep burial.
Avoidance of collisions at sea is crucial to navigational safety. In this paper, we use a distributed algorithm to communicate the entire collision avoidance trajectory information for each ship. In each communication, we suggest a new improvement function considering safety and efficiency to identify the avoidance ship in each cycle. Considering the nonlinear collision avoidance trajectory of ships, a new method for calculating the degree of danger using a velocity obstacle algorithm is proposed. Therefore, in each communication, each ship considers the avoidance behaviours of other ships in planning its avoidance trajectory. Additionally, we combine bi-criterion evolution (BCE) and the ant lion optimiser to plan the entire collision avoidance path. Three scenarios are designed to demonstrate the performance of this method. The results show that the proposed method can find a suitable collision-free solution for all ships.
A redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroﬂexus L.) population (HN-02) collected from Nenjiang County, Heilongjiang Province, exhibited multiple resistance to fomesafen and nicosulfuron. The purposes of this study were to characterize the herbicide resistance status of an HN-02 population for both acetolactate synthase (ALS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors and the response to other herbicides and to investigate the target site-based mechanism governing fomesafen and nicosulfuron resistance. Three mutations, Ala-205-Val and Trp-574-Leu mutations in the ALS gene and an Arg-128-Gly mutation in the PPX2 gene, were identified in individual resistant plants. An HN-02F1-1 subpopulation homozygous for the Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations was generated, and whole-plant experiments confirmed multiple resistance to PPO inhibitors (fomesafen, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, and acifluorfen) and ALS inhibitors (imidazolinones [IMI], sulfonylureas [SU], and triazolopyrimidines [TP]) in the HN-02F1-1 plants, which presented resistance index values ranging from 8.3 to 110; however, these plants were sensitive to flumioxazin, fluroxypyr-meptyl, and 2,4-D butylate. In vitro ALS enzyme activity assays revealed that, compared with ALS from susceptible plants, ALS from the HN-02F1-1 plants was 15-, 28- and 320-fold resistant to flumetsulam, nicosulfuron, and imazethapyr, respectively. This study confirms the first case of multiple resistance to PPO and ALS inhibitors in A. retroﬂexus and determines that the target-site resistance mechanism was produced by Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations in the ALS gene and PPX2 gene, respectively. In particular, the Ala-205-Val mutation was found to endow resistance to three classes of ALS inhibitors: TP, SU, and IMI.
Japanese foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus Steud.) is an invasive grass weed that severely threatens the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) crops in eastern Asia. Mesosulfuron-methyl is a highly efficient acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide widely used for control of this species in China. However, in recent years, some A. japonicus populations have evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl by different amino acid substitutions (AASs) within the ALS gene. In the current study, 11 populations of A. japonicus were collected from Anhui Province, China, where the wheat fields were severely infested with this weed. Based on single-dose screening, eight of these populations evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl, and gene sequencing revealed three AASs located in codon 197 or 574 of the ALS gene in the different resistant populations. Subsequently, three typical populations, AH-1, AH-4, and AH-10 with Trp-574-Leu, Pro-197-Thr, and Pro-197-Ser mutations, respectively, in ALS genes were selected to characterize their cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors. Compared with the susceptible population AH-S, AH-1 showed broad-spectrum cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), and sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinones (SCTs); whereas AH-4 and AH-10 were resistant to SUs, TPs, and SCTs but sensitive to IMIs. Moreover, all three resistant populations were sensitive to both photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor QYM201 (1-(2-chloro-3-(3-cyclopropyl-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperidin-2-one). Based on the current state of knowledge, this study is the first report of A. japonicus evolving cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides due to a Pro-197-Ser mutation in the ALS gene.
Shortawn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.) is an invasive and highly troublesome weed species originating from North America that has become widespread across China. Since its proliferation seriously threatens crop production worldwide, understanding its genetic diversity is critical for developing a forecasting system for integrated pest management plans. To accelerate the application of molecular markers in A. aequalis, this study aimed to develop a set of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using previous high-throughput sequencing data. In this study, a total of 1411 SSR loci were identified from 95,479 unigenes. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type with a frequency of 66.27%, followed by di- (24.95%) and tetra-nucleotide (8.78%). Among the loci, 584 primer pairs were successfully designed for marker development. Subsequently, a subset of 36 primer pairs was randomly selected and synthesized, of which 12 (33.33%) pairs successfully revealed abundant allelic polymorphism. Additionally, to investigate their utility, the genotypes of 160 individuals from 20 natural populations representing diverse wild genotypes of A. aequalis were analysed by using these 12 polymorphic markers. These novel SSR markers developed here are reliable and useful for genetic analysis on this invasive plant and will greatly enrich its genetic resource.
Little information is published related to seed germination and seedling emergence of Japanese foxtail, a troublesome annual grass weed widely distributed in winter wheat fields in China. Three Japanese foxtail populations were studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, to determine the effects of different environmental factors on seed germination or seedling emergence. Chemical control is absolutely necessary in integrated management, and efficacy of POST herbicides against different growth stages of Japanese foxtail was evaluated. Germination rate was 90% or more when temperature ranged from 5 to 25 C, with germination onset shortened as temperature increased. Light was not required for germination to occur. For pH values ranging from 5 to10 there was no effect on seed germination. Japanese foxtail seed germination was sensitive to osmotic stress and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of -1.1 MPa. The ‘1513’ population of Japanese foxtail demonstrated tolerance to soil salinity, with 98% germination at 80 mM NaCl compared with 25 and 40% germination for populations ‘1532’ and ‘1544’, respectively. High amounts of crop residue (10 t ha−1) suppressed Japanese foxtail emergence 38 to 55%. Germination of seeds placed at 160 C for 5 min was completely inhibited for dry seeds, with a similar effect at 130 C for pre-soaked seeds. Seed burial in the soil from 0 to 4 cm had no effect on seedling emergence, but burial at 7 cm completely inhibited seedling emergence. POST herbicides mesosulfuron-methyl (13.5 g ai ha−1), clodinafop-propargyl (67.5 g ai ha−1), pyroxsulam (13.5 g ai ha−1), pinoxaden (67.5 g ai ha−1) and isoproturon (1125 g ai ha−1) reduced plant dry weight 80% or more when applied at three- to seven-leaf stage, but control declined with application at later growth stages. The information from this study helps to develop an integrated approach to Japanese foxtail management.
Shortawn foxtail is an invasive grass weed infesting winter wheat and canola production in China. A better understanding of the germination ecology of shortawn foxtail would help to develop better control strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt concentration, and planting depth, on seed germination and seedling emergence of shortawn foxtail. The results showed that the seed germination rate was greater than 90% over a wide range of constant (5 to 25C) and alternating (15/5 to 35/25C) temperatures. Maximum germination occurred at 20C or 25/15C, and no germination occurred at 35C. Light did not appear to have any effect on seed germination. Shortawn foxtail germination was 27% to 99% over a pH range of 4 to 10, and higher germination was obtained at alkaline pH values ranging from 7 to 10. Seed germination was sensitive to osmotic potential and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.6 MPa, but it was tolerant to salinity: germination even occurred at 200 mM NaCl (5%). Seedling emergence was highest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but declined with the increasing burial depth. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried 6-cm deep. Deep tillage could be an effective measure to limit seed germination from increased burial depth. The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of the requirements for shortawn foxtail germination and emergence and will provide information that could contribute to its control.
Understanding the mechanism of herbicide resistance is fundamental for designing sustainable weed control strategies and exploiting herbicides rationally. Shortawn foxtail is a problem grass weed infesting several important crops in China. The repeated use of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides has resulted in herbicide resistance in this weed. The ACCase gene of resistant individuals of a shortawn foxtail population (JSLS-1) has an Ile-2041-Thr mutation. F2 generation seeds, originated from the same heterozygous plant, were harvested, and two homozygous mutant (JSLS-1RR) and wild (JSLS-1SS) populations for the Ile-2041-Thr mutation were obtained. In whole plants, the JSLS-1RR population conferred high resistance to fenoxaprop and clodinafop, moderate resistance to haloxyfop, low resistance to pinoxaden, and no obvious resistance to clethodim and sethoxydim, compared with JSLS-1SS and a proven susceptible population (HNXY-1). A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) marker was developed to rapidly detect the rare Ile-2041-Thr mutation in the shortawn foxtail population. This is the first report of the cross-resistance pattern of Ile-2041-Thr mutation, and the robust dCAPS marker could quickly detect this mutation in shortawn foxtail.
Shortawn foxtail is a competitive annual grass weed widely spread in east, south-central, and southwest China and parts of the Yellow River basin. One shortawn foxtail population (JSQT-1) resistant to fenoxaprop was identified in Jiangyan, Jiangsu province. Whole-plant experiments determined that the resistant population conferred high-level resistance to fenoxaprop (93-fold), clodinafop (21-fold), sethoxydim (107-fold), mesosulfuron (41-fold), and pyroxsulam (12-fold); moderate-level resistance to haloxyfop (8-fold), clethodim (9-fold), and pinoxaden (8-fold), and no resistance to isoproturon. Molecular analyses confirmed that the Ile-1781-Leu mutation was present in the resistant population. A dCAPS marker was used to detect the Ile-1781-Leu mutation. All 97 plants of the resistant population analyzed were homozygous mutants at the 1781 position. Our study established the first case of fenoxaprop resistance in shortawn foxtail, determined cross resistance to other herbicides, and elucidated that the molecular basis of resistance resulted from, at least partly, an Ile to Leu mutation at amino acid position 1781 in the plastid ACCase.
American sloughgrass is a troublesome grass weed in winter wheat fields
after rice in China. Mesosulfuron-methyl failed to control American
sloughgrass in Danyang County in 2012. The purpose of this research was to
determine the resistance level to mesosulfuron and other herbicides in
American sloughgrass and to identify the molecular basis of resistance.
Dose–response experiments indicated that this population was moderately
resistant to mesosulfuron-methyl (7.6-fold) and pyroxsulam (6.0-fold),
highly resistant to flucarbazone-sodium (20.3-fold),
fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (565.0-fold), clodinafop-proargyl
(19.5-fold), and pinoxaden (45.9-fold), and susceptible to isoproturon. Part
of the acetolactate sythase (ALS) gene was cloned and sequenced to confirm
the molecular mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. A
Pro197Ser substitution was identified. This substitution is
likely the molecular mechanism of resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl in the
Danyang population in which it is cross-resistant to flucarbazone-sodium and
pyroxsulam. This study established the first report of mesosulfuron-methyl
resistance likely caused by a Pro197 substitution in American
sloughgrass and a potential herbicide to control this resistant weed.
Overreliance on tribenuron has resulted in resistance evolution in water
starwort. This study investigates the resistance mechanisms to tribenuron in
water starwort populations from China. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase
(P450) inhibitor malathion increased tribenuron sensitivity in all
populations. The decrease in the amount of herbicide dose that causes 50%
growth reduction (GR50) for the sensitive (S) population JS24 and
the resistant (R) populations JS16 and JS17 were 2.3-, 2.5-, and 4.1-fold,
respectively. However, the GR50 values for the R populations were
still much higher than those of the S population. This observation indicates
that P450-mediated enhanced metabolism is one mechanism for resistance in
water starwort. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity could be
induced by tribenuron for all tested populations. In particular, the GST
activity of JS16 is inherently greater and is more rapidly induced than that
of JS17 or JS24. Resistance attributed to mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS)
alleles was identified by sequence analysis for each population. Pro197Ser
substitution was detected in JS16 and JS17. Molecular markers were also
developed to rapidly identify resistance as well as individuals carrying the
specific Pro197Ser mutation in water starwort populations. The resistance
patterns experiment revealed that the R populations exhibited different
levels of resistance to pyrithiobac sodium salt, florasulam, pyroxsulam, and
flucarbazone-Na; however, R populations were sensitive to imazethapyr,
fluroxypyr-meptyl, 2,4-D butylate, isoproturon, and diflufenican. This study
establishes that either one or at least two resistance mechanisms are
involved in herbicide resistance in water starwort. Moreover, these
mechanisms might contribute to the different levels of resistance to
tribenuron among water starwort populations.
Dinitroaniline and amide herbicides have been continually applied in garlic in China, leading to the change of weed community and dominant weed species. Catchweed bedstraw, shepherd's-purse, and flixweed have become major troublesome weeds. Crop safety of fluorochloridone to 18 crops (at rates of 500 and 1,000 g ai ha−1) and weed efficacy against 35 weeds (at rates of 125 and 250 g ha−1) were determined in greenhouse studies. Visual estimate indicated that fluorochloridone was not safe to many crops, especially cruciferous crops. Among all of the trial crops, garlic was the only crop which was not injured in both PRE and POST application at rate of 500 g ha−1, even when treated with 1,000 g ha−1. Fluorochloridone showed high efficacy against most weeds tested in this experiment when applied PRE, but could not offer a satisfactory control when applied POST. Further rate-response study of fluorochloridone to garlic and six weeds was also investigated. PRE application of fluorochloridone to garlic was safer than POST, and the rates for 10% growth reductions (GR10s) were 1,959 g ha−1 for PRE and 537 g ha−1 for POST. When applied PRE, GR90s of shepherd's-purse and flixweed were 19.2 and 70.3 g ha−1, respectively. Though GR90 of catchweed bedstraw was 541 g ha−1, it could be totally controlled without injuring garlic. On the basis of these results, fluorochloridone has an excellent prospect for weed control in garlic fields.
Mechanisms of herbicide resistance were studied in a quizalofop–ethyl-resistant barnyardgrass biotype. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) sensitivity to quizalofop-p-ethyl was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the trend in ACCase gene expression over time was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that an insensitive ACCase was present in Geqiushan resistant plants (R), with a resistance index of 106. The basal ACCase activities in Geqiushan R and Geqiushan susceptible plants (S) were similar, at 1.20 and 1.17 ng malonyl-CoA min−1 µg−1 extract protein, respectively. Basal ACCase gene expression in Geqiushan R was similar to that in Geqiushan S. The relative expression of ACCase gene decreased after spraying quizalofop–ethyl at 60 g ai ha−1 in Geqiushan S, whereas it was almost not changed in Geqiushan R. From these results we concluded that plastid ACCase sensitivity change might be responsible for the resistance and gene overexpression does not play a role in this resistance.
Japanese brome is a winter annual weed commonly found in wheat fields in China. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of Japanese brome. Germination was greater than 98% under a wide temperature range of 5 to 30 C and onset of germination was shortened as temperature increased. Light was not required for germination to occur and pH values from 5 to 10 had insignificant effect on germination. Germination was reduced by osmotic stress or salt stress and no germination occurred at −1.3 MPa or 360 mM, suggesting that Japanese brome seed was quite tolerant to osmotic potential and salinity. Seedling emergence was greatest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but decreased with increasing of burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged at a depth of 5 cm. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding of the germination and emergence of Japanese brome and should enhance our ability to develop better control strategies in wheat farming systems of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.
Populations of water starwort, a winter annual or biennial weed in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), can no longer be controlled by tribenuron following successive use of this herbicide over several years. Whole-plant bioassays have established that the resistant water starwort populations JS17, JS08, JS16, and JS07 showed high-level (from 203-fold to 565-fold) resistance to tribenuron. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) assays revealed that resistance was due to reduced sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to tribenuron. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (I50) values for JS17, JS08, JS16, and JS07 were 72, 71, 70, and 76 times greater, respectively, than were those of the susceptible population JS24. This altered ALS sensitivity in the resistant populations was due to a mutation in the ALS gene resulting in a Pro197 to Ser substitution (JS17, JS08, and JS16) and a Pro197 to Leu substitution (JS07). This study established the first documented case, to our knowledge, of evolved tribenuron resistance in water starwort and concluded that the molecular basis of resistance is due, at least in part, to a target-site modification at Pro197 in the ALS gene.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.