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Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.
PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.
Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.
These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.
We present a refined moving group membership diagnostics scheme based on Bayesian inference. Compared to the BANYAN II method, we improved the calculation by updating bona fide members of a moving group, field star treatment, and uniform spatial distribution of moving group members. Here, we present the detailed description of our method and the new results for Bayesian membership calculation. Comparison of our method with BANYAN II shows probability differences up to ~90%. We conclude that more cautious consideration is needed in moving group membership based on Bayesian inference.
Frailty is highly prevalent in older people, but its association with cognitive function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function and frailty in community-dwelling older adults.
Data were from the 2008 Living Profiles of Older People Survey, comprising 10,388 nationally representative sample aged 65 years and older living in the community in South Korea. Frailty criteria included unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, low physical activity, and slow walking speed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed with frailty status regressed on cognitive impairment and subdomains of cognitive function, adjusting for covariates.
Those who were frail showed a higher percentage of cognitive impairment (55.8% in men, 35.2% in women) than those who were not (22.1% in men, 15.6% in women). Cognitive impairment was associated with an increased risk of frailty in men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25–2.60) and women (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.25–2.30) even after controlling for all covariates. Among the subdomains of cognitive function, time orientation, registration, attention, and judgment were associated with a lower likelihood of frailty in both men and women after adjusting for confounders. Among women higher scores on recall, language components, and visual construction were also significantly associated with lower odds of frailty.
Cognitive impairment was associated with a higher likelihood of frailty in community-dwelling older men and women. Total scores and specific subdomains of cognitive function were inversely associated with frailty.
The authors regret that they incorrectly cited the source of financial support in the original publication. The acknowledgment should have read: This study was supported by the Health Promotion Fund, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (08-23) and a grant of the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health, Welfare & Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (A050079).
Background: An increasing body of evidence suggests that health behaviors may protect against cognitive impairment and dementia. The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on health behavioral factors predicting cognitive health through a systematic review of the published literature.
Methods: PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies on community representative samples aged 65 and older, with prospective cohort design and multivariate analysis. The outcome – cognitive health – was defined as a continuum of cognitive function ranging from cognitive decline to impairment and dementia, and health behaviors included physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, and diet and nutrition.
Results: Of 12,105 abstracts identified, 690 relevant full-texts were reviewed. The final yield amounted to 115 articles of which 37 studies were chosen that met the highest standards of quality. Leisure time physical activity, even of moderate level, showed protective effects against dementia, whereas smoking elevated the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Moderate alcohol consumption tended to be protective against cognitive decline and dementia, but nondrinkers and frequent drinkers exhibited a higher risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Midlife obesity had an adverse effect on cognitive function in later life. Analysis showed vegetable and fish consumption to be of benefit, whereas, persons consuming a diet high in saturated fat had an increased dementia risk.
Conclusion: The review demonstrates accumulating evidence supporting health behavioral effects in reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Results indicate potential benefits of healthy lifestyles in protecting cognitive health in later life.
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