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Calcification within breast cancer is a diagnostically significant radiological feature that generally consists of hydroxylapatite. Samples from 30 cases of breast carcinoma with calcification were investigated using optical microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Under optical microscopy, the calcifications were found to consist of either irregular aggregates with widths > 200 μm or spherical aggregates similar to psammoma bodies with an average diameter of 30 μm. Transmission-electron microscopy showed that short columnar or dumbbell-shaped crystals with widths of 10–15 nm and lengths of 20–50 nm were the most common morphology; spherical aggregates (~1 μm in diameter) with amorphous coatings of fibrous nanocrystals were also observed. Results indicated that hydroxylapatite was the dominant mineral phase in the calcifications, and both CO32– and cation substitutions (Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Sr, Cu and Mn) were present in the hydroxylapatite structure. Fourier-transform infrared spectra show peaks at 872 and 880 cm–1 indicating that CO32– substituted both the OH– (A type) and PO43– (B type) sites of hydroxylapatite, making it an A and B mixed type. The ratio of B- to A-type substitution was estimated in the range of 1.1–18.7 from the ratio of peak intensities (I872/I880), accompanied with CO32– contents from 1.1% to 14.5%. Trace arsenic, detected in situ by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was found to be distributed uniformly in the calcifications in the form of AsO43– substituting for PO43–. It is therefore proposed that identifying these trace elements in breast cancer calcifications may be promising for future clinical diagnostics.
Thermal perception is crucial for the fitness of marine invertebrates in intertidal and shallow waters. TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel that belongs to the TRP family with pivotal roles in initiating signal transduction of thermal perception. We investigated expression patterns of SiTRPA1 in different tissues (tube feet, coelomocytes, gonads and gut) of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. SiTRPA1 expression patterns under acute and long-term temperature stimuli were investigated in tube feet of sea urchins. In the present study, the highest expression of SiTRPA1 was detected in tube feet of S. intermedius. The SiTRPA1 expression level in tube feet were significantly 235.7-fold, 450.0-fold and 3299.7-fold higher than those in the coelomocytes, gonads and gut (df = 3, F = 47.382, P < 0.001). Expression levels of SiTRPA1 in the other tissues (coelomocytes, gonads and gut) were not significantly different (df = 3, F = 47.382, P = 0.972). There was no significant difference of SiTRPA1 expression among all groups in the acute temperature increase experiment (df = 4, F = 0.25, P = 0.902). In the acute temperature decrease experiment, the expression of SiTRPA1 showed no significant difference among all groups (df = 4, F = 1.802, P = 0.205). With long-term exposure (6 weeks) to different temperatures, SiTRPA1 expression in the low temperature group (10°C) was significantly higher than those in the high temperature (20°C) and the control groups (15°C) (df = 2, F = 9.57, P = 0.014). There was no significant difference of SiTRPA1 expression between the high temperature (20°C) and the control temperature (15°C) groups (df = 2, F = 9.57, P = 0.808). These results indicate that SiTRPA1 expression significantly responds to long-term low temperature but not to acute temperature decrease. The present study provides new insights on the distribution and temporal expression of TRPA1 in marine invertebrates after acute and long-term temperature stimuli.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
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