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The health system responsiveness, defined as non-medical aspect of treatment relating to the protection of the patients’ legitimate rights, is the intrinsic goal of the WHO strategy for 21st century, and is an important index to measure the service ability of medical institutions.
The data were collected in 2016-2017 and consists of the first visits for patients of grass-roots medical institutions. SPSS21.0 was used to complete statistical description and tests including multiple linear regression model analysis and structural equation analysis.
There are differences in perceived responsiveness of primary medical institutions in Qinghai and Zhejiang. Zhejiang residents believe that the primary medical institutions have better medical environment, medical staff have better attitudes to explain problems, treatment plan explanation is more clear, and the attitude toward listening to patient condition is more serious. However, Qinghai residents think that the waiting time of the basic medical institutions is shorter and the degree of trust in the medical staff is higher. There are differences in health system responsiveness among different groups. According to the standard of ɑ=0.05, factors such as ethnicity, household registration type, the medical insurance type, the occupational type, the marital status, the educational level have a significant impact on the perceived responsiveness of primary medical institutions.
Health system responsiveness exists in the region, which may be related to the differences in the economic development level, the state of health service and the management and investment in health services among different regions. On the other hand, residents living in the same area are more similar in terms of living environment, socio-economic status, ideology and culture, and health beliefs than those from different regions. This may be one of the reasons the results of health system responsiveness assessment are closer than for residents in different regions.
The utilization of medical resources in China is unbalanced and insufficient. In order to find a way to maximize their utilization to face challenges in the upcoming decade, this study aims to investigate the elderly's first choice of health institutions when they were ill in the Zhejiang and Qinghai provinces, and to explore the potential pathways related to their choices, respectively.
The data used in this study was from cross-sectional surveys in Zhejiang and Qinghai. According to the Anderson Health Service Utilization Model, we applied structural equation modeling to explore the complex pathways from socioeconomic status (SES), accessibility, and health status to the elderly's first choice of health institutions.
The proportion of the elderly who selected community health institutions (CHI) as their first choice of medical institutions in Qinghai was higher than in Zhejiang. The Zhejiang model revealed a significantly negative direct effect of SES and significantly positive direct effects of accessibility to CHI and health status on the choice of institutions, and a significantly positive indirect effect of SES on choice of institutions, through the mediating factor of health status. SES played an important role in the Zhejiang model in direct and indirect ways. In the Qinghai model, only SES and accessibility to CHI had significantly direct effects on the choice of institutions, with accessibility to CHI having the biggest effects. SES had a significant and positive indirect impact on choice of institutions, through the factor of accessibility to CHI.
A better understanding of the complex pathways from factors to elderly's choices of health institutions was essential, which may inform priorities for maximizing the utilization of CHI further and prepare to face challenges in the new decade. Through this research method, policymakers could explore the specific pathways based on their own economic and societal status.
China has made great achievements in health insurance coverage and healthcare financing. Nonetheless, the rate of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) in China was 13 percent in 2008, which is higher than in some other countries. There are differences among the provinces in China in terms of the lifestyles, customs, prevalent medical conditions, and health consciousness of their populations. This study aimed to compare the proportion of households with CHE and the factors influencing this expenditure between the Zhejiang and Qinghai province in China.
Data were derived from household surveys conducted in Zhejiang and Qinghai. Sampling was based on a multi-stage, stratified random cluster method. Households with CHE were defined as those with an out-of-pocket payment for health care that was at least 40 percent of the household income. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with CHE.
A total of 1,598 households were included: 995 in Zhejiang and 603 in Qinghai. The average rates of CHE in Zhejiang and Qinghai were 10 percent and 31 percent, respectively. The economic status of a household influenced the likelihood of experiencing CHE; households headed by an employed person were less likely to experience CHE. In contrast, households that included outpatients or individuals with chronic diseases had a higher risk of experiencing CHE across the two provinces. Poorer or uninsured households in Zhejiang were more likely to experience CHE, as were households in Qinghai that included outpatients or were headed by a person from a minority nationality.
This study highlighted the importance of promoting economic development, expanding employment, and adjusting policies to better protect individuals with chronic diseases and outpatients from the risk of CHE. The Chinese government should pay more attention to actual conditions in different provinces to ensure that policy decisions incorporate local knowledge.
There are multiple antidiabetic drugs available in China, which vary in their efficacy and safety. However, no study exists that compares all the classes of antidiabetic drugs simultaneously. This study aimed to estimate and compare the efficacy of alternative classes of antidiabetic drugs for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, either in a monotherapy regimen or combined with metformin.
A systematic literature review was conducted by searching various literature databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2016. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of antidiabetic drug monotherapy and placebo or lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and exercise), and antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus metformin alone, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. An indirect comparison was used to estimate the efficacy of antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus placebo or lifestyle-intervention using metformin as the common comparator.
The database search identified 354 relevant studies. Compared with placebo or lifestyle interventions, combination therapies achieved greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (1.9% versus 0.9%), body mass index (BMI) (2.66 versus 0.98 kg/m2), and total cholesterol level (1.07 versus 0.35 mmol/L) than monotherapies. For monotherapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were insulin, sulfonylurea, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. The top three monotherapies for reducing BMI level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and α-glycosidase inhibitor. The top three monotherapies for reducing total cholesterol level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. For combination therapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, insulin plus metformin, and glinide plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing BMI level were glinide plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and DPP-4 inhibitor plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing total cholesterol level were insulin plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and α-glycosidase inhibitor plus metformin.
Pharmacological treatments had better efficacy than placebo or lifestyle interventions, while combination drug therapies were superior to monotherapies.
Equity is the core of primary care. The issue of equity in health has become urgent and China has attached increasing attention to it. With rapid economic development and great change of the policy on medical insurance, the pattern of equity in health has changed a lot. Reform of healthcare in Zhejiang province is at the forefront of China; studies on Zhejiang are of great significance to the whole country. This paper aims to measure the equity in health from the perspectives of health needs and health seeking behavior, and provides suggestions for decision making.
A household survey was conducted in August 2016. A sample of 1000 households, 2807 individuals in Zhejiang was obtained with the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis and Chi-square test were adopted in the analysis. The value of concentration index was used to measure the equity.
This study finds that the poor have more urgent health needs and poorer health situation compared with the rich. The utilization of outpatient services was almost equal, whilst the utilization of hospitalization was pro-rich (the rich use more).Individuals with employer-based medical insurance use more outpatient services than those with rural and urban medical insurance. Compared to the rich, there were more people in the poorer income groups who didn't use inpatient services due to financial difficulties.
The issue of equity in health has attracted broad attention in the world, and China is no exception. We measured and analyzed the equity of health needs and absent rate of health services. We find that the poor have more urgent health needs and high absent rate of inpatient services compared with the rich. Income level and medical insurance may well explain the equity of outpatient and inequity of hospitalization. In view of the pro-rich inequity of hospitalization, more financial protection should be provided for the poor.
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