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Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
Macroscopic assembling of responsive hydrogels has been used to construct soft actuators that transform their shape upon external stimuli. It remains a challenge to establish a robust assembling interface between gels. Here, we demonstrate a fabrication of bilayered hydrogel actuators assembled by host-guest recognition at the interface. The supramolecular recognition enabled efficient, rapid, and robust macroscopic assembling of hydrogels, which was utilized to create gel bilayers that were actuated upon unbalanced swelling/deswelling.
Yak milk casein derived from Qula, a traditional Tibetan acid curd cheese, was hydrolyzed by six commercially available proteases (Trypsin, Pepsin, Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain and Neutrase). These hydrolysates were assayed for their inhibitory activity of Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE). The hydrolysates obtained by Neutrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity. The IC50 value of Neutrase-hydrolysate was 0·38 mg/ml. The hydrolysate obtained by Neutrase was further separated by consecutive ultra-filtration with 10 kDa and then with 6 kDa molecular weight cut-offs into different permeated parts and fractionated by gel filtration chromatography with a Sephadex G-25 column. The active fraction was subjected to RP-HPLC, in which five peaks were purified and identified. Amino acid sequence analysis confirmed that the peptides and origins were as follows: YQKFPQY (αs2-CN; f89–95), LPQNIPPL (β-CN; f70–77), SKVLPVPQK (β-CN; f168–176), LPYPYY (κ-CN; f56–61) and FLPYPYY (κ-CN; f55–61). Their amino acid sequences matched well with those of known bioactive peptides from bovine casein. The results indicated that yak milk casein could be a resource to generate antihypertensive peptides and be used as multifunctional active ingredients for many value-added functional foods as well as a traditional food protein.
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