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This study aimed to determine the impact of current hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on patients hospitalised with sepsis. This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients from three medical centres in Suzhou from 10 January 2016 to 23 July 2022 participated in this study. Demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics were collected. A total of 945 adult patients with sepsis were included. The median age was 66.0 years, 68.6% were male, 13.1% presented with current HBV infection, and 34.9% of all patients died. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox model, patients with current HBV infection had significantly higher mortality than those without (hazard ratio (HR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–2.02). A subgroup analysis showed that being infected with HBV significantly increased in-hospital mortality in patients younger than 65 years old (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16–2.63), whereas no significant impact was observed in patients ≥65 years. The propensity score-matched case–control analysis showed that the rate of septic shock (91.4% vs. 62.1%, P < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (48.3% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.045) were much higher in the propensity score-matched HBV infection group compared with the control group. In conclusion, current HBV infection was associated with mortality in adults with sepsis.
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on the growth performance, tissue Ca and P concentrations, antioxidant capacity, immune response and lipid metabolism in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. A total of 720 shrimp (initial weight 0·50 ± 0·01 g) were randomly distributed into six treatments, each of which had three duplicates of forty shrimp per duplicate. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded vitamin D3 (0·18, 0·23, 0·27, 0·48, 0·57 and 0·98 mg/kg of vitamin D3, measured) supplementation levels. The results revealed that L. vannamei fed diet containing 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 achieved the best growth performance. Compared with the control group, supplementing 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 significantly increased (P < 0·05) the activities of catalase, total antioxidative capacity, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in serum and hepatopancreas. Expression levels of antioxidant and immune-related genes were synchronously increased (P < 0·05). Carapace P and Ca concentrations were increased (P < 0·05) with the increased vitamin D3 supplementation levels. Further analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes expression showed that shrimp fed 0·48 mg of vitamin D3 per kg diet showed the highest value in the expression of lipid synthesis-related genes, while shrimp fed 0·98 mg of vitamin D3 per kg diet showed the highest value in the expression of lipolysis-related genes. In conclusion, the results of present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 could increase Ca and P concentrations, improve antioxidant capacity and immune response, and influence lipid metabolism in L. vannamei.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, Zn bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity and innate immunity in juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain dietary Zn levels of 44·5, 56·9, 68·5, 97·3, 155·6 or 254·7 mg/kg. Dietary Zn level significantly influenced percentage weight gain (PWG), with the highest observed in crabs fed the diet containing 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Tissue Zn concentrations significantly increased as dietary Zn levels increased from 44·5 to 254·7 mg/kg. Retention of Zn in hepatopancreas increased with dietary Zn levels up to 68·5 mg/kg and then significantly decreased. Moreover, inadequate dietary Zn (44·5 and 56·9 mg/kg) reduced antioxidation markers including total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and total antioxidant level. Crabs fed the diet with 44·5 mg/kg Zn also showed significantly lower expression of genes involved in antioxidant status, such as Cu/Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and thioredoxin than those fed diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. The highest activities of phenoloxidase and alkaline phosphatase were recorded in crabs fed the diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Expression levels of prophenoloxidase and toll-like receptor 2 were higher in crabs fed the 97·3 mg/kg Zn diet compared with crabs fed the other diets. Based on PWG alone, the optimal dietary Zn level was estimated to be 82·9 mg/kg, with 68·5 to 97·3 mg/kg recommended for maintaining optimal Zn bioaccumulation, oxidation resistance and innate immune response of juvenile mud crabs.
We report on a systematic experimental study on the fluorescence spectra produced from a femtosecond laser filament in air under a high electric field. The electric field alone was strong enough to create corona discharge (CD). Fluorescence spectra from neutral and ionic air molecules were measured and compared with pure high-voltage CD and pure laser filamentation (FIL). Among them, high electric field assisted laser FIL produced nitrogen fluorescence more efficiently than either pure CD or pure FIL processes. The nonlinear enhancement of fluorescence from the interaction of the laser filament and corona discharging electric field resulted in a more efficient ionization along the laser filament zone, which was confirmed by the spectroscopic measurement of both ionization-induced fluorescence and plasma-scattered 800 nm laser pulses. This is believed to be the key precursor process for filament-guided discharge.
A novel n(2-UPS/PS+RPS) spatial hyper-redundant manipulator (SHRM) formed by an optional number of 2-UPS/PS+RPS(2-universal joint-prismatic joint-spherical joint/prismatic joint-spherical joint+revolute joint-prismatic joint-spherical joint) parallel manipulators(PMs) connected in series is proposed and analyzed in this paper. First, the forward kinematics of the 2-UPS/PS+RPS PM is derived in close form. By extending this result to the whole SHRM, the forward kinematics model of the n(2-UPS/PS+RPS) SHRM is established. Second, the compact and elegant expressions for solving the forward velocity of the n(2-UPS/PS+RPS) SHRM are derived. Third, the statics and stiffness of the n(2-UPS/PS+RPS) SHRM are analyzed systematically by considering both active forces and constrained forces existed in each 2-UPS/PS+RPS PM. Finally, an analytically solved example is given for a 4(2-UPS/PS+RPS) SHRM formed by four 2-UPS/PS+RPS PMs. The analytical results are verified by CAD software.
The inverse dynamics model of a novel (3-UPU)+(3-UPS+S) serial–parallel manipulator (S-PM) formed by a 3-UPU PM and a 3-UPS+S PM connected in serial is studied in this paper. First, the inverse position, velocity, and acceleration of this S-PM are studied systematically. Second, the velocity mapping relations between each component and the terminal platform of (3-UPU)+(3-UPS+S) S-PM are derived. Third, the dynamics model of the whole (3-UPU)+(3-UPS+S) S-PM is established by means of the principle of virtual work. The process for establishing the dynamics model of this S-PM is fit for other S-PMs.
Ronnie Vernooy, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Li Xiaoyun, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Xu Xiuli, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Lu Min, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Qi Gubo, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada