To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.
To determine what exacerbate severity of the COVID-19 among patients without comorbidities and advanced age and investigate potential clinical indicators for early surveillance, we adopted a nested case−control study, design in which severe cases (case group, n = 67) and moderate cases (control group, n = 67) of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 without comorbidities, with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years who admitted to Wuhan Tongji Hospital were matched based on age, sex and BMI. Demographic and clinical characteristics, and risk factors associated with severe symptoms were analysed. Percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-10 were found closely associated with severe COVID-19. The adjusted multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the independent risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 were CRP (OR 2.037, 95% CI 1.078–3.847, P = 0.028), SpO2 (OR 1.639, 95% CI 0.943–2.850, P = 0.080) and lymphocyte (OR 1.530, 95% CI 0.850–2.723, P = 0.148), whereas the changes exhibited by indicators influenced incidence of disease severity. Males exhibited higher levels of indicators associated with inflammation, myocardial injury and kidney injury than the females. This study reveals that increased CRP levels and decreased SpO2 and lymphocyte counts could serve as potential indicators of severe COVID-19, independent of comorbidities, advanced age and sex. Males could at higher risk of developing severe symptoms of COVID-19 than females.
This study seeks to identify healthcare utilization patterns following symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and the variables that may influence these patterns.
RTIs are responsible for the bulk of the primary healthcare burden worldwide. Yet, the use of health services for RTIs displays great discrepancies between populations. This research examines the influence of social demographics, economic factors, and accessibility on healthcare utilization following RTIs.
Structured interviews were administered by trained physicians at the households of informants selected by cluster randomization. Descriptive and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess healthcare utilization and associated independent variables.
A total of 60 678 informants completed the interviews. Of the 2.9% informants exhibiting upper RTIs, 69.5–73.9% sought clinical care. Healthcare utilization rates for common cold, influenza, nine acute upper RTIs, and overall RTIs demonstrate statistically significant associations with the variables of age, type of residence, employment, medical insurance, annual food expenditure, distance to medical facilities, and others. The odds ratios for healthcare utilization rates varied substantially, ranging from 0.026 to 9.364. More than 69% of informants with RTIs sought clinical interventions. These findings signify a marked issue with the large amount of healthcare for self-limited RTIs.
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA).
SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA.
A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved.
This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668–673)
The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is an important component of the plant innate immunity response to invading pathogens. Although several MTI responses can be measured in different plant species, their magnitude is probably plant species specific and even cultivar specific. In this study, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two soybean parental lines and two progeny lines treated for 30 min with the MAMPs flg22 and chitin was carried out. This analysis revealed a clear variation in gene expression, under both untreated and flg22+chitin-treated conditions. In addition, genes with potential additive and non-additive effects were identified in the two progeny lines, with several of these genes having a potential function in the control of innate immunity. The data presented herein represent the basis for further functional analysis that can lead to a better understanding of the soybean innate immunity response.
The prevalence of goitre in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking-water is still under debate. The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of goitre and its epidemiological characteristics in these areas using WHO criteria. To this end, three towns with a median water iodine (MWI) of 150–300 μg/l were selected randomly in Hengshui City of Hebei Province of China, and one town with a MWI of 105 μg/l was chosen as a control. A total of 452 children in the three towns and 120 children in the control town were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume (Tvol) by ultrasound. The goitre status of these children was judged using the criteria recommended by the WHO. The overall goitre prevalences in the three towns were 24·6 % (111/452) by age-specific Tvol and 33·0 % (149/452) by body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Tvol, which were significantly higher than that in the control town by both age-specific Tvol (14·0 % (17/120), P= 0·015) and BSA-adjusted Tvol (17·5 % (21/120), P= 0·001). Significant differences were found neither in goitre prevalences across sex by both age-specific Tvol (P= 0·078) and BSA-adjusted Tvol (P= 0·692) nor in that across age group by both BSA-adjusted Tvol (P= 0·461) and age-specific Tvol (P= 0·183). The present study found a high prevalence of goitre in children living in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking-water in Hebei Province. No significant differences were found in goitre prevalences across sex and age group. These results suggest that the Tvol reference values recommended by the WHO could be too low for Chinese children.
To identify children's iodine nutrition and goitre status in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking water.
A cross-sectional survey. Probability proportional to size sampling was employed to randomly select children from thirty townships where the median iodine content in drinking water ranged from 150 to 300 μg/l; their urinary iodine concentrations were determined and their thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound. Drinking water samples and salt samples from the villages where the children lived were collected using a systematic sampling method.
Hebei Province of China.
A total of 1259 children aged 8–10 years (621 boys and 638 girls).
Children's median urinary iodine concentration was found to be 418·8 μg/l, and the iodine concentration was >300 μg/l for 68·3 % (248/363) of the urine samples. Children's median urinary iodine concentration in villages with median salt iodine >10 mg/kg was significantly higher than that in villages with median salt iodine <5 mg/kg (442·9 μg/l v. 305·4 μg/l, P ≈ 0). The goitre rate of 1259 children examined by ultrasound was 10·96 %.
The iodine intake of children living in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking water in Hebei Province was found to be excessive. The measured iodine excess in the sampled children is exacerbated by consumption of iodized salt. Goitre was identified in these areas; however, due to the limitation of the current criteria for children's thyroid volume, a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of goitre in these regions could not be made and further study is required.
Myofibre composition in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Erhualian (EHL) and Large White (LW) pigs was investigated by determining the ratios of mRNA abundances of four myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (MyHC I, MyHC 2a, MyHC 2x and MyHC 2b) using multiplex RT-PCR. The relationship between expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α coactivator-lα (PGC-lα) mRNAs and changes ofmyofibre type composition during postnatal growth from 3 to 180 days of age were analysed. At 3 days of age, proportions of MyHC I, 2a and 2x fibres were high while only a few MyHC 2b fibres were differentiated. Dramatic changes were observed from day 3 to day 20 with significantly decreased MyHC I, 2a and 2x fibres but abrupt increases in MyHC 2b fibres in both breeds of pigs. Breed difference was exhibited only from day 90, with higher MyHC 2b but less MyHC I and 2a expression in LW pigs. Developmental pattern of GHR mRNA expression in LD muscle coincided with that of MyHC 2b, with LW pigs expressing higher abundance of GHR mRNA. PGC-lα mRNA expression followed distinct patterns in the two breeds of pigs, a higher level of PGC-lα mRNA being expressed in LD muscle of EHL pigs, the breed that possessed more oxidative fibres (MyHC I and MyHC 2a).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.