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College students often experience mental anxiety due to academic pressure, employment pressure, and environmental pressure. Conventional drug therapy can easily develop resistance under sustained action. Therefore, research has combined cognitive behavioral therapy with university student management strategies to treat college students’ mental anxiety through a combination approach.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 120 students with mental anxiety disorder in their third and fourth years of a certain major in a certain university were selected as the research subjects. According to different treatment methods, the two groups of student patients were divided into Group E and Group F. Group E used traditional treatment methods, while Group F used a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and university student management strategies. After treatment, Hamilton’s anxiety of 200 hours was used to quantify the mental state of students, and SPSS 21.0 statistical software was used for data analysis.
The overall effective rate of treatment in Group F was as high as 96.15%, higher than 76.92% in Group E; After treatment, the Hamilton score of Group F was 13.21 ± 2.07, which was lower than the 27.18 ± 4.62 score before treatment, and also significantly lower than the 19.28 ± 3.49 score of Group E. Meanwhile, the incidence of adverse reactions in Group F after treatment was 1.15%, lower than Group E’s 6.58%.
The combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and university student management strategies is effective in treating students’ mental anxiety disorder.
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing urban–rural differences in depressive symptoms among old people in China and to measure the contribution of relevant influencing factors.
A cross-sectional research. The 2018 data from The Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS).
Twenty-three provinces in China.
From the 8th CLHLS, 11,245 elderly participants were selected who met the requirements of the study.
We established binary logistic regression models to explore the main influencing factors of their depressive symptoms and used Fairlie models to analyze the influencing factors of the differences in depressive symptoms between the urban and rural elderly and their contribution.
The percentage of depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults was 11.72%, and the results showed that rural older adults (12.41%) had higher rates of depressive symptoms than urban (10.13%). The Fairlie decomposition analysis revealed that 73.96% of the difference in depressive symptoms could be explained, which was primarily associated with differences in annual income (31.51%), education level (28.05%), sleep time ( − 25.67%), self-reported health (24.18%), instrumental activities of daily living dysfunction (20.73%), exercise (17.72%), living status ( − 8.31%), age ( − 3.84%), activities of daily living dysfunction ( − 3.29%), and social activity (2.44%).
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in rural than in urban older adults, which was primarily associated with differences in socioeconomic status, personal lifestyle, and health status factors between the urban and rural residents. If these factors were addressed, we could make targeted and precise intervention strategies to improve the mental health of high-risk elderly.
In this paper, a 2D angle amplifier based on peristrophic multiplexed volume Bragg gratings is designed and prepared, in which a calculation method is firstly proposed to optimize the number of channels to a minimum. The induction of peristrophic multiplexing reduces the performance difference in one bulk of the grating, whereas there is no need to deliberately optimize the fabrication process. It is revealed that a discrete 2D angle deflection range of ±30° is obtained and the relative diffraction efficiency of all the grating channels reaches more than 55% with a root-mean-square deviation of less than 3.4% in the same grating. The deviation of the Bragg incidence and exit angles from the expected values is less than 0.07°. It is believed that the proposed 2D angle amplifier has the potential to realize high-performance and large-angle beam steering in high-power laser beam scanning systems.
In social interactions, people frequently encounter gain (i.e., all outcomes are gains from the status-quo) or loss (all outcomes are losses from the status-quo) social dilemmas, where their personal interests conflict with social interests. We ask whether there are any behavioral differences in social interactions when it comes to gains and losses. Using the Prisoner’s Dilemma games, in three studies we observed that participants were less cooperative in the loss domain than in the gain domain. This effect was robust, not moderated by payoff amount (Study 1), cooperation index (Study 1), domain comparison (Studies 1 and 2), and personal loss aversion (Study 3). Social motive and belief explained this effect: compared to the gain domain, participants in the loss domain aroused more pro-self motive and less prosocial motive, and showed stronger beliefs that their partner would defect, which led them to cooperate less. These findings suggest that gain and loss domains affect individual motivation and belief, subsequently affecting strategic choices in social dilemmas.
We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of physical and psychological pains on intertemporal choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, physical pain was induced by the self-created Shiatsu sheet treading method (SSTM) and the classical cold pressor task (CPT), respectively. In Experiment 3, psychological pain was induced by the video induction method. All types of pain increased preference for smaller immediate rewards. Theoretical implications and practical implications are discussed.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
This study aimed to investigate the organization, workload, and psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers from the domestic Medical Aid Teams (MATs) sent to Wuhan in China.
Leaders and members of MATs involved in the care for COVID-19 patients were invited to participate in a study by completing 2 separate self-report questionnaires from April 1 to 24, 2020.
A total of 9 MAT leaders were involved and 464 valid questionnaires were collected from 140 doctors and 324 nurses. Mean age of the doctors and nurses were 39.34 ± 6.70 (26∼58 years old) and 31.88 ± 5.29 (21∼52 years old), with 72 (15.5%) being males. Nurses were identified as an independent risk factor (HR 1.898; P = 0.001) for a day working time in the multivariate analysis. The proportions of psychological consulting received among nurses were higher than those among doctors (49.7 vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). More than 50% of the anesthetists and emergency doctors who have received psychological consulting thought that it was effective according to self-evaluation.
This study focused on healthcare workers’ situation during the early period of the pandemic. Nurses worked longer than doctors. The effectiveness of psychological consulting depends on the physicians’ specialties and the working conditions of the nurses and psychological consulting targeting different specialties need to be improved.
For individual cultures, findings on regulating embryo density by changing the microdrop volume are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between embryo density and the developmental outcome of day 3 embryos after adjusting covariates. In total, 1196 embryos from 206 couples who had undergone in vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Three embryo densities were used routinely, i.e. one embryo in a drop (30 μl/embryo), two embryos in a drop (15 μl/embryo) and three embryos in a drop (10 μl/embryo). Embryo quality on day 3 was evaluated, both the cell number of day 3 embryos and the proportion of successful implantations served as endpoints. Maternal age, paternal age, antral follicles and level of anti-Müllerian hormone, type of infertility, controlled ovarian stimulation protocol, length of stimulation, number of retrieved oocytes, number of zygotes (two pronuclei) and insemination type were covariates and adjusted. After adjusting fully for all covariates, the cell number of day 3 embryos was significantly increased by 0.40 (95% CI 0.00, 0.79; P = 0.048) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.02, 1.54; P = 0.044) in the 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo group separately, compared with the 30 μl/embryo group. The proportions of implanted embryos were 42.1%, 48.7% and 0.0% in the 30 μl/embryo, 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo groups respectively. There was no statistical significance (P = 0.22) between the 30 μl/embryo group and the 15 μl/embryo group. After adjusting for confounders that were significant in univariate analysis, embryo density was still not associated with day 3 embryo implantation potential (P > 0.05). In a 30-μl microdrop, culturing embryos with an embryo density of both 15 and 10 μl/embryo increased the cell number of day 3 embryos, which did not benefit embryo implanting potential, compared with individual culture of 30 μl/embryo.
Recent breakthroughs in deep learning-based protein structure prediction show that it is possible to obtain highly accurate models for a wide range of difficult protein targets for which only the amino acid sequence is known. The availability of accurately predicted models from sequences can potentially revolutionise many modelling approaches in structural biology, including the interpretation of cryo-EM density maps. Although atomic structures can be readily solved from cryo-EM maps of better than 4 Å resolution, it is still challenging to determine accurate models from lower-resolution density maps. Here, we report on the benefits of models predicted by AlphaFold2 (the best-performing structure prediction method at CASP14) on cryo-EM refinement using the Phenix refinement suite for AlphaFold2 models. To study the robustness of model refinement at a lower resolution of interest, we introduced hybrid maps (i.e. experimental cryo-EM maps) filtered to lower resolutions by real-space convolution. The AlphaFold2 models were refined to attain good accuracies above 0.8 TM scores for 9 of the 13 cryo-EM maps. TM scores improved for AlphaFold2 models refined against all 13 cryo-EM maps of better than 4.5 Å resolution, 8 hybrid maps of 6 Å resolution, and 3 hybrid maps of 8 Å resolution. The results show that it is possible (at least with the Phenix protocol) to extend the refinement success below 4.5 Å resolution. We even found isolated cases in which resolution lowering was slightly beneficial for refinement, suggesting that high-resolution cryo-EM maps might sometimes trap AlphaFold2 models in local optima.
To explore the relationship between parameters of Na and K excretion using 24-h urine sample and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in general population.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Community-based general population in Emin China.
Totally, 1147 subjects aged ≥18 years were selected to complete the study, with a multistage proportional random sampling method. Cognitive status was assessed with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire and timed 24-h urine specimens were collected. Finally, 561 participants aged ≥35 years with complete urine sample and MMSE data were included for the current analysis and divided into groups by tertiles of 24-h urinary sodium to potassium ratio (24-h UNa/K) as lowest (T1), middle (T2) and highest (T3) groups.
The MMSE score was significantly lower in T3, compared with the T1 group (26·0 v. 25·0, P = 0·002), and the prevalent MCI was significantly higher in T3 than in T1 group (11·7 % v. 25·8 %, P < 0·001). In multiple linear regression, 24-UNa/K (β: −0·184, 95 % CI −0·319, −0·050, P = 0·007) was negatively associated with MMSE score. In multivariable logistic regression, compared with T1 group, 24-h UNa/K in the T2 and T3 groups showed 2·01 (95 % CI 1·03, 3·93, P = 0·041) and 3·38 (95 % CI 1·77, 6·44, P < 0·001) fold odds for presence of MCI, even after adjustment for confounders. More augmented results were demonstrated in sensitivity analysis by excluding individuals taking anti-hypertensive agents.
Higher 24-h UNa/K is in an independent association with prevalent MCI.
GBF1 [Golgi brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor 1] is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Arf family. GBF1 localizes at the cis-Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment where it participates in ER-Golgi traffic by assisting in the recruitment of the coat protein COPI. However, the roles of GBF1 in oocyte meiotic maturation are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory functions of GBF1 in mouse oocyte organelle dynamics. In our results, GBF1 was stably expressed during oocyte maturation, and GBF1 localized at the spindle periphery during metaphase I. Inhibiting GBF1 activity led to aberrant accumulation of the Golgi apparatus around the spindle. This may be due to the effects of GBF1 on the localization of GM130, as GBF1 co-localized with GM130 and inhibiting GBF1 induced condensation of GM130. Moreover, the loss of GBF1 activity affected the ER distribution and induced ER stress, as shown by increased GRP78 expression. Mitochondrial localization and functions were affected, as the mitochondrial membrane potential was altered. Taken together, these results suggest that GBF1 has wide-ranging effects on the distribution and functions of Golgi apparatus, ER, and mitochondria as well as normal polar body formation in mouse oocytes.
Biological materials represent a major source of inspiration to engineer protein-based polymers that can replicate the properties of living systems. Combined with our ability to control the molecular structure of proteins at the single amino acid level, this results in a vast array of attractive possibilities for materials science, an interest that is undeniably related to simplified procedures in gene synthesis, cloning, and biotechnological production. In parallel, it has been increasingly appreciated that living organisms exploit liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) to fabricate extracellular structures. In this article, we discuss the central role of protein LLPS in the fabrication of selected biological structures, including biological adhesives and hard biomolecular composites, and how physicochemical lessons from these systems are being replicated in synthetic analogs. Recent translational applications of protein LLPS are highlighted, notably aqueous-resistant adhesives, stimuli-responsive therapeutics carriers, and matrix materials for green structural composites.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to over 213 countries and territories. We sought to describe the clinical features of fatalities in patients with severe COVID-19.
We conducted an Internet-based retrospective cohort study through retrieving the clinical information of 100 COVID-19 deaths from nonduplicating incidental reports in Chinese provincial and other governmental websites between January 23 and March 10, 2020.
Approximately 6 of 10 COVID-19 deaths were males (64.0%). The average age was 70.7 ± 13.5 y, and 84% of patients were elderly (over age 60 y). The mean duration from admission to diagnosis was 2.2 ± 3.8 d (median: 1 d). The mean duration from diagnosis to death was 9.9 ± 7.0 d (median: 9 d). Approximately 3 of 4 cases (76.0%) were complicated by 1 or more chronic diseases, including hypertension (41.0%), diabetes (29.0%) and coronary heart disease (27.0%), respiratory disorders (23.0%), and cerebrovascular disease (12.0%). Fever (46.0%), cough (33.0%), and shortness of breath (9.0%) were the most common first symptoms. Multiple organ failure (67.9%), circulatory failure (20.2%), and respiratory failure (11.9%) are the top 3 direct causes of death.
COVID-19 deaths are mainly elderly and patients with chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Multiple organ failure is the most common direct cause of death.
From 21 January 2020 to 9 February 2020, three family clusters involving 31 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were identified in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the family cluster patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 contemporaneous sporadic cases. The three index cases transmitted the infection to 28 family members 2–10 days before illness onset. Overall, 28 of the 41 sporadic cases and three of 31 patients in the family clusters came back from Wuhan (65.12 vs. 9.68%, P< 0.001). In terms of epidemiological characters and clinical symptoms, no significant differences were observed between the family cluster and sporadic cases. However, the lymphocyte counts of sporadic cases were significantly lower than those of family cluster cases ((1.32 ± 0.55) × 109/l vs. (1.63 ± 0.70) × 109/l, P = 0.037), and the proportion of hypoalbuminaemia was higher in sporadic cases (18/43, 41.86%) than in the family clusters (6/31, 19.35%) (P < 0.05). Within the family cluster, the second- and third-generation cases had milder clinical manifestations, without severe conditions, compared with the index and first-generation cases, indicating that the virulence gradually decreased following passage through generations within the family clusters. Close surveillance, timely recognition and isolation of the suspected or latent patient is crucial in preventing family cluster infection.