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Childhood is a critical period for muscle accumulation. Studies in elders have reported that antioxidant vitamins could improve muscle health. However, limited studies have assessed such associations in children. This study included 243 boys and 183 girls. A seventy-nine-item FFQ was used to investigate dietary nutrients intake. Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with MS. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and total body fat. The ASM index (ASMI) and ASMI Z-score were then calculated. Hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar® Plus+ Hand Dynamometer. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that for each unit increase in plasma retinol content, ASM, ASMI, left HGS and ASMI Z-score increased by 2·43 × 10−3 kg, 1·33 × 10−3 kg/m2, 3·72 × 10−3 kg and 2·45 × 10−3 in girls, respectively (P < 0·001–0·050). ANCOVA revealed a dose–response relationship between tertiles of plasma retinol level and muscle indicators (Ptrend: 0·001–0·007). The percentage differences between the top and bottom tertiles were 8·38 %, 6·26 %, 13·2 %, 12·1 % and 116 % for ASM, ASMI, left HGS, right HGS and ASMI Z-score in girls, respectively (Pdiff: 0·005–0·020). No such associations were observed in boys. Plasma α-tocopherol levels were not correlated with muscle indicators in either sex. In conclusion, high circulating retinol levels are positively associated with muscle mass and strength in school-age girls.
In order to expand the family and improve the bioactivity of oral implant ceramics, the phase structures, mechanical and wetting properties of the hot-pressed yttria-zirconia/multilayer graphene oxide composite (3Y-ZrO2/GO) ceramics were investigated. GO was uniformly distributed in 3Y-ZrO2 powders, forming the C–O–Zr bond during the sintering process. In comparison to raw 3Y-ZrO2 ceramics, the flexural strength and fracture toughness improved up to 200% (1489.96 ± 35.71 MPa) in ZG3 (with 0.15 wt% GO) and 40.9% (8.95 ± 0.59 MPa m1/2) in ZG2 (with 0.1 wt% GO), respectively, while the relative density and Vickers hardness increased slightly. The toughening mechanisms included crack deflection, crack bridging, and GO put-out. Meanwhile, the composite ceramics were transformed into a more hydrophilic direction and indicated a good wetting property. In consideration of mechanical and wetting properties, the ZG3 would be a favorable alternative to the yttria-zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP) in dental implant applications. The results are expected to serve as a technical guidance for the fabrication and evaluation of dental implants.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.
Cancer patients with depression or anxiety have poor survival, and the interaction between mental and physical problems in older patients may exacerbate this problem. K-ras oncogene (KRAS) mutation may play a role in the development of psychosocial distress and may be associated with poor survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. This study investigated the association between KRAS gene mutations and psychosocial morbidity to explore the possible cancer/psychosis relationship in older mCRC patients.
In this study, 62 newly diagnosed mCRC patients were recruited and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Demographic data were also collected, and clinicopathological data were retrieved from medical records. KRAS mutations were assessed via PCR analysis of tissue specimens from the patients.
The results showed that 28 of the 62 participants (45.2%) had positive screens for possible depression, and 45 of the 62 participants (72.6%) had positive screens for anxiety. The KRAS mutation rate was 40.3% (25/62), and 19 of the 25 patients with KRAS mutations (76.0%) had probable depression, whereas only 24.3% of the patients with wild-type KRAS were probably depressed (p < 0.05). The KRAS mutation was associated with higher HADS depression scores, independent of gender and performance status (p < 0.05), but not with higher HADS anxiety or total scores.
KRAS mutations were associated with depression severity and higher rates of probable depression in older mCRC patients. Depression should be assessed and treated as early as possible in older mCRC patients with the KRAS mutation. Further studies are needed to verify our current findings using a larger sample size.
To investigate the potential influence of dietary Se intake on mortality among Chinese populations.
We prospectively evaluated all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality risks associated with dietary Se intake in participants of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men’s Health study (SMHS). Dietary Se intake was assessed by validated FFQ during in-person interviews. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
Urban city in China.
Chinese adults (n 133 957).
During an average follow-up of 13·90 years in the SWHS and 8·37 years in the SMHS, 5749 women and 4217 men died. The mean estimated dietary Se intake was 45·48 μg/d for women and 51·34 μg/d for men, respectively. Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in both women and men, with respective HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile being 0·79 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·88; Ptrend<0·0001) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·98; Ptrend=0·0268) for women, and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·89; Ptrend=0·0001) and 0·66 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; Ptrend=0·0002) for men. No significant associations were observed for cancer mortality in both women and men. Results were similar in subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both sexes, but not cancer mortality.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
The astrocytic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK) is a key negative regulator of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine. Astrogliosis with concomitant upregulation of ADK is part of the epileptogenic cascade and contributes to seizure generation. To molecularly dissect the respective roles of astrogliosis and ADK-expression for seizure generation, we used a transgenic approach to uncouple ADK-expression from astrogliosis: in Adk-tg mice the endogenous Adk-gene was deleted and replaced by a ubiquitously expressed Adk-transgene with novel ectopic expression in pyramidal neurons, resulting in spontaneous seizures. Here, we followed a unique approach to selectively injure the CA3 of these Adk-tg mice. Using this strategy, we had the opportunity to study astrogliosis and epileptogenesis in the absence of the endogenous astrocytic Adk-gene. After triggering epileptogenesis we demonstrate astrogliosis without upregulation of ADK, but lack of seizures, whereas matching wild-type animals developed astrogliosis with upregulation of ADK and spontaneous recurrent seizures. By uncoupling ADK-expression from astrogliosis, we demonstrate that global expression levels of ADK rather than astrogliosis per se contribute to seizure generation.
Epilepsy is characterized by both neuronal and astroglial dysfunction. The endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, the level of which is largely controlled by astrocytes, might provide a crucial link between astrocyte and neuron dysfunction in epilepsy. Here we have studied astrogliosis, a hallmark of the epileptic brain, adenosine dysfunction and the emergence of spontaneous seizures in a comprehensive approach that includes a new mouse model of focal epileptogenesis, mutant mice with altered brain levels of adenosine, and mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors. In wild-type mice, following a focal epileptogenesis-precipitating injury, astrogliosis, upregulation of the adenosine-removing astrocytic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), and spontaneous seizures coincide in a spatio-temporally restricted manner. Importantly, these spontaneous seizures are mimicked by untreated transgenic mice that either overexpress ADK in brain or lack A1 receptors. Conversely, mice with reduced ADK in the forebrain do not develop either astrogliosis or spontaneous seizures. Our studies define ADK as a crucial upstream regulator of A1 receptor-mediated modulation of neuronal excitability, and support the ADK hypothesis of epileptogenesis in which upregulation of ADK during astrogliosis provides a crucial link between astrocyte and neuron dysfunction in epilepsy. These findings define ADK as rational target for therapeutic intervention.
The process of encapsulating antibodies in sol-gel was used for sensing various hormones, specifically cortisol, insulin, and C-peptide. A sol-gel optical biosensor for cortisol has been developed for monitoring of crew health on-orbit during space missions. Our studies involving silica sol-gel materials with competitive immunoassays demonstrated linear calibration for cortisol in the range of 2-60 μg/dL, which covers the physiological range of cortisol blood concentration for an adult (2-28 μg/dL). The method of standard additions was used to analyze human serum samples sent to us from a NASA laboratory. Our sol-gel immunosensor values were typically within 20% of the values obtained by NASA-JSC using traditional immuno-binding techniques, with some values having less than a 5% error. Initial results are presented for sensing the hormones insulin and C-peptide.
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