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The aim was to assess epidemiological characteristics of the most recent consumption patterns of meat, vegetable, and fruit among representative urban and rural residents aged 60+ years in regional China. In this cross-sectional survey conducted in mid-2018, participants aged 60+ years were randomly chosen from urban and rural communities in Nanjing municipality of China. Meat, vegetable, and fruit intake were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) to investigate the association of socio-demographic characteristics with a likelihood of meeting intake recommendation. Among the 20 867 participants, 49⋅5 % were men and 45⋅0 % urban elders, and 6⋅5 % aged 80+ years. The mean values of consumption frequency of red meat, white meat, vegetable, and fruit were 2⋅99 ± 2⋅28, 1⋅37 ± 1⋅13, 5⋅24 ± 6⋅43, and 2⋅64 ± 2⋅91 times/week, respectively, among overall participants. Moreover, there were 14⋅9, 23⋅7, and 12⋅1 % of participants meeting intake recommendations of meat, vegetable, and fruit, separately, in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, age, gender, residence area, and educational attainment each was associated with the likelihood of meeting intake recommendation of meat, vegetable, or fruit. The consumption frequency and proportion of participants meeting intake recommendations of meat, vegetable, or fruit were not high among elders in regional China. Socio-demographic characteristics were associated with intake recommendations of meat, vegetables, and fruit. It has public health implications that participants’ socio-demographic attributes shall be considered for precision intervention on meat, vegetable, and fruit consumption in healthy eating campaigns among elders in China.
Examination of the material collected by Taiwan deep-sea cruises reveals the presence of five species of the deep-sea shrimp genus Glyphocrangon A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, representing new records for Taiwan and Dongsha (Pratas Island; under jurisdiction of Taiwan). These species are Glyphocrangon albatrossae, G. caecescens, G. indonesiensis, G. major and G. proxima, all of which belong to the informal Glyphocrangon spinicauda species group. These findings bring the total number of species in the G. spinicauda species group reported in the waters around Taiwan and Dongsha to 11. The complex ornamentation of the body surface of each species is shown using micro-computed tomography. Diagnosis and illustrations showing diagnostic characters and living colouration are provided for most, if not all, of these species. Glyphocrangon grandis is placed under the synonymy of G. major based on morphology, because it was found that diagnostic characters proposed to distinguish these two taxa are variable within the current series of specimens. The biogeographical distributions of these species are presented, and a key is provided to help identify the 11 known species in this region.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). We aimed to identify the factors associated with depression among HCWs during the pandemic. We conducted literature search using eight electronic databases up to July 27 2022. Observational studies with more than 200 participants investigating correlates of depression in HCWs after COVID-19 outbreak were included. We used fixed- and random-effects models to pool odds ratios (ORs) across studies, and Cochran's chi-squared test and I2 statistics to assess study heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plots. Thirty-five studies involving 44,362 HCWs met the inclusion criteria. Female (OR=1.50, 95% CI [1.23,1.84]), single (OR=1.36, 95% CI [1.21,1.54]), nurse (OR=1.69, 95% CI [1.28,2.25]), history of mental diseases (OR=2.53, 95% CI [1.78,3.58]), frontline (OR=1.79, 95% CI [1.38,2.32]), health anxiety due to COVID-19 (OR=1.88, 95% CI [1.29,2.76]), working in isolation wards (OR=1.98, 95% CI [1.38,2.84]), and insufficient personal protective equipment (OR=1.49, 95% CI [1.33,1.67]) were associated with increased risk of depression. Instead, HCWs with a positive professional prospect (OR=0.34, 95% CI [0.24,0.49]) were less likely to be depressed. This meta-analysis provides up-to-date evidence on the factors linked to depression among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the persistent threats posed by COVID-19, early screening is crucial for the intervention and prevention of depression in HCWs.
Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were necessary for insect sensory system to perform important processes such as feeding, mating, spawning, and avoiding natural enemies. However, their functions in non-olfactory organs have been poorly studied. To clarify the function of CSPs in the development of Mythimna separata (Walker) larvae, two CSP genes, MsCSP17 and MsCSP18, were identified from larval integument transcriptome dataset. Both of MsCSP17 and MsCSP18 contained four conserved cysteine sites (C × (6)-C × (18)-C × (2)-C), with a signal peptide at the N-terminal. RT-qPCR analysis showed that MsCSP17 and MsCSP18 have different expression patterns among different developmental stages and tissues. MsCSP17 was highly expressed in 1st–4th instar larvae, and MsCSP18 had high expression in adults. Both genes were expressed highly in larval head, thorax, integument and mandible. Moreover, both of MsCSP17 and MsCSP18 were lowly expressed in larval integuments when larvae molted for 6 h and 9 h from 3rd to 4th instar, but highly at the beginning and end phase during molting. After injection of dsMsCSP17 and dsMsCSP18, the expression levels of two genes decreased significantly, with the body weight of larvae decreased, the mortality increased, and the eclosion rate decreased. It was suggested that MsCSP17 and MsCSP18 contributed to the development of M. separata larvae.
The random distributed-feedback fiber laser (RFL) is a new approach to obtain a high-power stable supercontinuum (SC) source. To consider both structure simplification and high-power SC output, an innovative structure achieving a kilowatt-level SC output in a single-stage RFL with a half-open cavity is demonstrated in this paper. It consists of a fiber oscillator, a piece of long passive fiber and a broadband coupler, among which the broadband coupler acting as a feedback device is crucial in SC generation. When the system has no feedback, the backward output power is up to 298 W under the pump power of 1185 W. When the feedback is introduced before the pump laser, the backward power loss can be reduced and the pump can be fully utilized, which could promote forward output power and conversion efficiency significantly. Under the maximum pump power of 1847 W, a 1300 W SC with spectrum ranging from 887 to 1920 nm and SC conversion efficiency of 66% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the simplest structure used for high-power SC generation, and both the generated SC output power and the conversion efficiency are highest in the scheme of the half-opened RFL output SC.
Childhood is a critical period for muscle accumulation. Studies in elders have reported that antioxidant vitamins could improve muscle health. However, limited studies have assessed such associations in children. This study included 243 boys and 183 girls. A seventy-nine-item FFQ was used to investigate dietary nutrients intake. Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with MS. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and total body fat. The ASM index (ASMI) and ASMI Z-score were then calculated. Hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar® Plus+ Hand Dynamometer. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that for each unit increase in plasma retinol content, ASM, ASMI, left HGS and ASMI Z-score increased by 2·43 × 10−3 kg, 1·33 × 10−3 kg/m2, 3·72 × 10−3 kg and 2·45 × 10−3 in girls, respectively (P < 0·001–0·050). ANCOVA revealed a dose–response relationship between tertiles of plasma retinol level and muscle indicators (Ptrend: 0·001–0·007). The percentage differences between the top and bottom tertiles were 8·38 %, 6·26 %, 13·2 %, 12·1 % and 116 % for ASM, ASMI, left HGS, right HGS and ASMI Z-score in girls, respectively (Pdiff: 0·005–0·020). No such associations were observed in boys. Plasma α-tocopherol levels were not correlated with muscle indicators in either sex. In conclusion, high circulating retinol levels are positively associated with muscle mass and strength in school-age girls.
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare tumour of vascular origin that rarely occurs in the heart. We provided a rare case of a 26-day-old infant with tachypnoea. Echocardiography showed a solid tumour in the pericardial cavity and a large amount of pericardial effusion. The solid tumour was confirmed by surgery, and the pathology was kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. We analysed this case and reviewed the related literature to explore the clinical features and echocardiographic manifestations to improve the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease for clinicians and sonographers.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
In recent years, children’s travel behaviour, including active school transport (AST, such as walking and cycling), has attracted researchers from varying disciplines, such as urban planning, transportation and public health. Previous studies have shown that those who often walk or cycle to and from school are much more active than those who are driven and have more knowledge regarding their neighborhood environment (Mackett 2013). Research has also reported that AST plays a vital role in promoting children’s physical activity and can prevent and reduce childhood obesity (Mendoza et al. 2011). Furthermore, AST can contribute to children’s physical activity levels and positively impact children’s mental and psychological health (Fusco et al. 2012). In addition, it was estimated that as much as 10–14% of morning traffic is generated by parents driving their children to schools (McDonald et al. 2011). Similar trends have been documented in developing countries. It is also found that the traffic congestion indices of two weeks before and after school in Beijing can rise from 3–6 to 6–9 points (above six means moderate or severe congestion). And the capacity of the three-lane road around the school will drop 38% under the influence of student shuttle vehicle trips (Shi et al. 2014).
The problem caused by this traffic congestion on the roads near schools may create hazardous conditions for children traveling by non-motorized means and increase tail gas of automobiles that will contaminate the air that children breathe in and around their school. Despite AST’s significant health and environmental implications, AST has declined over the past few decades internationally (Buliung et al. 2011; Witten et al. 2013). For example, in the United States, the rate of AST declined from 47.7% in 1969 to 12.7% in 2009 (McDonald et al. 2011), and the share of children aged 5–9 who walked to school has decreased from 57.7% in 1971 to 25.5% in 2003 in Australia (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008).
Research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure recognizes the importance of the government and examines how firms respond to government CSR regulations. However, little attention is given to how government regulations affect firms’ disclosure strategy in multiple fields of CSR. Based on institutional theory, this study proposes that mandatory CSR disclosure increases the legitimacy management cost for firms, and thus firms disclose more CSR scope to gain legitimacy and less CSR emphasis to reduce costs. Using data from Chinese A-share listed firms in 2008–2018, this study finds that mandatory CSR disclosure is positively related to CSR scope but negatively related to CSR emphasis. In addition, firm visibility strengthens the aforementioned positive and negative relations, whereas market competition weakens the relation between mandatory CSR disclosure and CSR emphasis. This study contributes to the literature on CSR disclosure and studies on organizational responses to the government mandate.
During pregnancy, a variety of psychological and physical changes occur in women, which may have different impacts on risk decision-making involving different processes systems. Based on the dual-process theories of decision-making, using the Columbia Card Task (CCT) as the experimental paradigm, which can trigger deliberative versus affective decision-makings respectively, this study recruited 240 pregnant women and non-pregnant women aged 20-40 as the experimental group and control group respectively, investigated how pregnancy impacted on women’s risk decision-making, as well as the possible roles played by a series of psychological factors (impulsivity; sensation seeking; emotional state) and physiological factors (gestational age; human Chorionic Gonadotropin, hCG; progesterone) in the above process. The results were as follows: (a) Compared with non-pregnant women, pregnant women tended to choose fewer cards, indicating a higher risk aversion consistent with a more conservative strategy, both in cold and hot CCTs; in both cold and hot CCTs, compared with pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy, pregnant women in the first and the third trimesters of pregnancy had a higher risk aversion tendency. (b) Pregnant women had lower levels of all dimensions of sensation seeking than did non-pregnant women, pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy had lower levels of Disinhibition (DIS) and Boredom Susceptibility (BS) of sensation seeking than pregnant women in the first and the second trimesters of pregnancy, but there was no significant difference in levels of emotional state or impulsivity between pregnant woman and non-pregnant women. (c) DIS of sensation seeking played a fully mediating role in the impact of pregnancy on hot CCT performance. (d) Both hCG and progesterone levels were negatively correlated with pregnant women’s hot CCT performances. (e) Positive emotion played a partial mediating role in the effect of progesterone on hot CCT performance of pregnant women.
We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of physical and psychological pains on intertemporal choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, physical pain was induced by the self-created Shiatsu sheet treading method (SSTM) and the classical cold pressor task (CPT), respectively. In Experiment 3, psychological pain was induced by the video induction method. All types of pain increased preference for smaller immediate rewards. Theoretical implications and practical implications are discussed.
With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
Excavation at Mogou, a Bronze Age cemetery containing over 1700 burials and 6000 individuals, has revealed a diverse range of multiple burials. Building on this dataset, the Mogou Multidisciplinary Investigation Project aims to explore connections between kinship, burial space and social organisation in Bronze Age north-west China.
With the rapid development of the national economy, the demand for electricity is also growing. Thermal power generation accounts for the highest proportion of power generation, and coal is the most commonly used combustion material. The massive combustion of coal has led to serious environmental pollution. It is significant to improve energy conversion efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions effectively. In this paper, an extreme learning machine model based on improved Kalman particle swarm optimization (ELM-IKPSO) is proposed to establish the boiler combustion model. The proposed modeling method is applied to the combustion modeling process of a 300 MWe pulverized coal boiler. The simulation results show that compared with the same type of modeling method, ELM-IKPSO can better predict the boiler thermal efficiency and NOx emission concentration and also show better generalization performance. Finally, multi-objective optimization is carried out on the established model, and a set of mutually non-dominated boiler combustion solutions is obtained.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical effects of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) surgery combined with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) regimen in the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients with different etiologies. In total, 128 NOA patients participated in this study, in which they received infertility treatment by micro-TESE surgery combined with an ICSI regimen, and all patients were divided into three groups [the Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the idiopathic and the secondary NOA groups]. In addition, the sperm retrieval rate (SRR), fertilization rate, embryo development status and clinical treatment effects were analyzed. Among the 128 NOA patients, the SRR of KS NOA patients was 48.65%, those of idiopathic and the secondary patients were 33.82% and 73.91%, respectively. Regardless of etiologies, there was no correlation with age, hormone value or testicular volume. Further analysis showed that the SRR of the KS group was positively related with testosterone (T) values, and the SRR of the secondary group had a positive relationship with follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone values. In the subsequent clinical treatment, the retrieved sperm was subjected to ICSI and achieved good treatment effects, especially in the secondary group, and the implantation rate (55.56%) and clinical pregnancy rate (68.42%) were both higher than those of the idiopathic group (28.75% and 40.00%) and KS group (22.05% and 30.77%). Micro-TESE surgery combined with ICSI insemination is the most effective treatment regimen for NOA patients. The SRR of NOA patients with different etiologies are related to certain specific factors, and micro-TESE surgery seems to be the ideal and only way to have biological children.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Population suppression is an effective way for controlling insect pests and disease vectors, which cause significant damage to crop and spread contagious diseases to plants, animals and humans. Gene drive systems provide innovative opportunities for the insect pests population suppression by driving genes that impart fitness costs on populations of pests or disease vectors. Different gene-drive systems have been developed in insects and applied for their population suppression. Here, different categories of gene drives such as meiotic drive (MD), under-dominance (UD), homing endonuclease-based gene drive (HEGD) and especially the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene drive (CCGD) were reviewed, including the history, types, process and mechanisms. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of applying different gene-drive systems to suppress the insect population were also summarized. This review provides a foundation for developing a specific gene-drive system for insect population suppression.