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Using the visual world paradigm with printed words, this study investigated the flexibility and representational nature of phonological prediction in real-time speech processing. Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese listened to spoken sentences containing highly predictable target words and viewed a visual array with a critical word and a distractor word on the screen. The critical word was manipulated in four ways: a highly predictable target word, a homophone competitor, a tonal competitor, or an unrelated word. Participants showed a preference for fixating on the homophone competitors before hearing the highly predictable target word. The predicted phonological information waned shortly but was re-activated later around the acoustic onset of the target word. Importantly, this homophone bias was observed only when participants were completing a ‘pronunciation judgement’ task, but not when they were completing a ‘word judgement’ task. No effect was found for the tonal competitors. The task modulation effect, combined with the temporal pattern of phonological pre-activation, indicates that phonological prediction can be flexibly generated by top-down mechanisms. The lack of tonal competitor effect suggests that phonological features such as lexical tone are not independently predicted for anticipatory speech processing.
The ferroelectric material of BaTiO3 was introduced in the electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells to improve the photogenerated electron transport. The sintered BaTiO3 thin films were polarized at different applied electric fields, and then TiO2 thin films were further deposited to be used as the ETL. The electric field was positively applied across the BaTiO3 thin film, and the photocurrent density of solar cell can be increased obviously. The results of electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectra indicate that the ordered polarization dipole moment inside the BaTiO3 thin film can accelerate the transport of photogenerated electrons from the ETL to the conducting glass substrate. The short-circuit photocurrent of perovskite solar cell is increased and thus the light-to-electric conversion efficiency is effectively improved to 13%. It is increased by 14% compared with that without the application of the positive electric field across the BaTiO3 thin film.
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