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A disaster in the hospital is particularly serious and quite different from other ordinary disasters. This study aimed at analyzing the activity outcomes of a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) for a fire disaster at the hospital.
The data which was documented by a DMAT and emergent medical technicians of a fire department contained information about the patient’s characteristics, medical records, triage results, and the hospital which the patient was transferred from. Patients were categorized into four groups according to results of field triage using the simple triage and rapid treatment method.
DMAT arrived on the scene in 37 minutes. One hundred and thirty eight (138) patients were evacuated from the disaster scene. There were 25 patients (18.1%) in the Red group, 96 patients (69.6%) in the Yellow group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the Green group. One patient died. There were 16 (11.6%) medical staff and hospital employees. The injury of the caregiver or the medical staff was more severe compared to the family protector.
For an effective disaster-response system in hospital disasters, it is important to secure the safety of medical staff, to utilize available medical resources, to secure patients’ medical records, and to reorganize the DMAT dispatch system.
Our aim was to examine the prevalence, correlates, and association of depressive and anxiety disorders with quality of life (QoL) and such other outcomes as the need for psychosocial services in cancer patients.
A total of 400 patients participated in a multicenter survey involving five cancer centers located throughout Korea. The Short-Form Health Survey, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MINI-MAC), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were administered.
The prevalence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were 16 and 17.1%, respectively. Younger age and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and all physical symptoms, as well as helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation (AP), and cognitive avoidance (CA) on the MINI-MAC were found to be significantly related to depressive disorder (DD) in a univariate logistic regression analysis. Metastases, the symptoms of disturbed sleep, dry mouth, and numbness or tingling, as well as AP and CA were significantly correlated with anxiety disorder (AD) in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analyses, only AP was significant for AD (odds ratio = 2.94, p < 0.001), while none reached statistical significance for DD. Psychiatric comorbidity status had a detrimental effect on various dimensions of QoL. Patients with DD or AD reported a significantly higher need for professional psychosocial services.
Significance of results:
Given the substantial prevalence and pervasive impact of DD and AD on various aspects of QoL, its assessment and care should be integrated as a regular part of oncological care throughout the cancer continuum.
This study evaluated the impacts of earlier traumatic events on the mental health of older adults, in terms of mental disorders and mental well-being, according to sociodemographic variables, trauma-related characteristics, and personality traits in a nationally representative sample of older Koreans.
A total of 1,621 subjects aged 60 to 74 years from a Korean national epidemiological survey of mental disorders responded face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to investigate lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) and psychiatric diagnoses. The EuroQol health classification system and life satisfaction scale were used to assess quality of life (QoL), and the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) to measure personality traits.
Five-hundred and seventy-seven subjects (35.6%) reported a history of LTE (mean age at trauma, 30.8 years old). Current mental disorders were more prevalent in elderly people with LTE, while better current QoL was more frequent in those without LTE. Among older people with LTE, lower extraversion and higher neuroticism increased the risk of current mood or anxiety disorders, whereas higher extraversion increased the probability of experiencing mental well-being after adjusting for sociodemographic and trauma-related variables.
Personality traits, especially extraversion, and neuroticism, may be useful for predicting the mental health outcomes of LTE in older adults. Further longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health outcomes are needed.
Introduction: Internet game overuse is an emerging disorder and features diminished impulse control and poor reward-processing. In an attempt to understand the neurobiological bases of Internet game overuse, we investigated the differences in regional cerebral glucose metabolism at resting state between young individuals with Internet game overuse and those with normal use using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study.
Methods: Twenty right-handed male participants (9 normal users: 24.7±2.4 years of age, 11 overusers: 23.5±2.9 years of age) participated. A trait measure of impulsivity was also completed after scanning.
Results: Internet game overusers showed greater impulsiveness than the normal users and there was a positive correlation between the severity of Internet game overuse and impulsiveness. Imaging data showed that the overusers had increased glucose metabolism in the right middle orbitofrontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and right insula, and decreased metabolism in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, left precentrai gyrus, and bilateral occipital regions compared to normal users.
Conclusion: Internet game overuse may be associated with abnormal neurobiological mechanisms in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and sensory regions, which are implicated in impulse control, reward processing, and somatic representation of previous experiences. Our results support the idea that Internet game overuse shares psychological and neural mechanisms with other types of impulse control disorders and substance/non-substance-related addiction.
There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants.
We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders.
Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant.
Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
The goal of this work was to improve the strength of sintered zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) by surface treatment, using a low expansion glass (Mg3Al2Si6O18) at high temperature. The room-temperature strength was increased by about 42% when the glass was penetrated for 30 min. There was a drastic increase in the Weibull modulus. However, the longer holding time led to grain coarsening and the excess glass deteriorated the strength. The magnitude of the strength increment was on the order of surface stress measured experimentally and thermo-elastic stress predicted theoretically. A significant contribution of phase transformation of zirconia from tetragonal to monoclinic phase on the residual stress was also found. Furthermore, compared to the as-sintered zirconia, the glass-treated sample (penetrated for 30 min) exhibited relatively higher strength at elevated temperature (750 °C) and also showed a significant improvement in the thermal shock resistance behavior.
In this investigation, 22 cloned male piglets were obtained by male fetal fibroblast-cell-derived nuclear transfer. Eighteen of the cloned animals died. The two cell lines did not differ significantly with regard to efficiency of live piglet production. The gross anatomy of the testes of male piglets that died was normal. However, one piglet displayed Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH). No anatomical defects were detected in the testes of other cloned male piglets. TUNEL analysis of the testis with LCH revealed significant apoptosis in the Leydig cells, while apoptosis was rarely detected in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In contrast, testes from the remaining 17 piglets that died appeared normal in size, and their Sertoli and Leydig cell numbers were comparable to those in control piglet testes. Although cloned piglets were derived from fibroblasts obtained from the same fetus, phenotypic instability between cells used for the production of somatic cell cloned piglets suggests that abnormalities in male cloned piglets are caused not by technical problems and/or reprogramming effects, but rather by epigenetically and/or genetically damaged cell-specific effects.
It is still unclear whether nuclear envelope breakdown and premature chromosome condensation are essential for the reprogramming of the donor nucleus following somatic nuclear transfer. To address this, we determined the ability of delayed-activated or simultaneously activated porcine oocytes to undergo nuclear remodelling and development following somatic cell nuclear transfer. A small microtubule aster was observed in association with decondensed chromatin following nuclear transfer, suggesting the introduction of a somatic cell centrosome. In the delayed-activated condition, most fibroblast nuclei divided into two chromosome masses and two pronuclear-like structures following transfer into oocytes. In contrast, fibroblast nuclei in the simultaneously activated condition formed a large, swollen, pronuclear-like structure. Microtubule asters were organised in the vicinity of the nucleus regardless of the number of nuclei. More reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage in the delayed-activated condition than in the simultaneously activated condition (p < 0.05). Nine piglets were born from two recipient sows following transfer of delayed-activated reconstructed oocytes, while none developed to full term in the simultaneously activated condition. Fingerprint analysis showed that the PCR-RFLP patterns of the nine offspring were identical to that of the donor pig. These results suggest that the activation of recipient oocytes during nuclear transfer probably relates to the nuclear remodelling process, which can affect the ability of embryos created by somatic cell nuclear transfer to develop.
Microtubules and microfilaments are major cytoskeletal components and important modulators for chromosomal movement and cellular division in mammalian oocytes. In this study we observed microtubule and microfilament organisation in bovine oocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and determined requirements of their assembly during in vitro maturation. After germinal vesicle breakdown, small microtubular asters were observed near the condensed chromatin. The asters appeared to elongate and encompass condensed chromatin particles. At the metaphase stage, microtubules were observed in the second meiotic spindle at the metaphase stage. The meiotic spindle was a symmetrical, barrel-shaped structure containing anastral broad poles, located peripherally and radially oriented. Treatment with nocodazole did not inhibit germinal vesicle breakdown. However, progression to metaphase failed to occur in oocytes treated with nocodazole. In contrast, microfilaments were observed as a relatively thick uniform area around the cell cortex and overlying chromatin following germinal vesicle breakdown. Treatment with cytochalasin B inhibited microfilament polymerisation but did not prevent either germinal vesicle breakdown or metaphase formation. However, movement of chromatin to the proper position was inhibited in oocytes treated with cytochalasin B. These results suggest that both microtubules and microfilaments are closely associated with reconstruction and proper positioning of chromatin during meiotic maturation in bovine oocytes.
Structure and composition of the ferroelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 layers in a capacitor of the ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM) device having a density of 64 k were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) together with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique. The 250 nm thick PZT layer derived by the sol-gel route showed a 2–3% Pb-deficient, 3–4% Ti-deficient, and 5–7% Zr-excess composition at the top electrode interface compared to the bulk composition when they were as-fabricated. The local compositional nonuniformity became more critical as the integration process proceeded, which seriously degraded the ferroelectric hysteresis and the device yield. The major cause of the compositional variation was the outward diffusion of Pb through the capping barrier TiO2 layer during annealing at 650 °C. The AlN capping barrier layer was also not effective in suppressing the diffusion of Pb. However, the Al2O3/TiO2 double capping layer was very effective in suppressing the outward diffusion of Pb, and excellent ferroelectric characteristic was expected.
We investigated the temperature dependent characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFT's) at temperatures down to 20 K. With decreasing temperature, the threshold voltage increased, the field effect mobility and the on-current decreased. The measured on-currents versus inverse temperature above 80 K are represented as the sum of two exponentially varied currents. It is concluded that on-current is nearest-neighbour hopping between 120 K and 80 K. Below this temperature, the temperature dependence of on-current is explained by variable range hopping and below about 30 K on-current becomes nearly independent of temperature. At very low temperature hopping probability may be governed not by temperature but by temperature independent tunneling, depending on the overlap of the wave function. The explanation of threshold voltage increase at low temperature is given.
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