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Our previous studies have suggested that spastin, which aggregates on spindle microtubules in oocytes, may promote the assembly of mouse oocyte spindles by cutting microtubules. This action may be related to CRMP5, as knocking down CRMP5 results in reduced spindle microtubule density and maturation defects in oocytes. In this study, we found that, after knocking down CRMP5 in oocytes, spastin distribution shifted from the spindle to the spindle poles and errors in microtubule–kinetochore attachment appeared in oocyte spindles. However, CRMP5 did not interact with the other two microtubule-severing proteins, katanin-like-1 (KATNAL1) and fidgetin-like-1 (FIGNL1), which aggregate at the spindle poles. We speculate that, in oocytes, due to the reduction of spastin distribution on chromosomes after knocking down CRMP5, microtubule–kinetochore errors cannot be corrected through severing, resulting in meiotic division abnormalities and maturation defects in oocytes. This finding provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of spastin in oocytes and important opportunities for the study of meiotic division mechanisms.
Periplaneta americana, one of the most widely distributed insects all over the world, can survive and reproduce in harsh environment which may be closely related to the critical roles of intestinal microorganisms in its multiple physiological functions. However, the composition and structure of gut microbiota throughout different life stages and its effects on the strong resilient and environmental adaptability of P. americana remain unclear. In this study, the gut microbiota across life stages including ootheca (embryos), nymph and adult of P. americana were investigated by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Multivariate statistical analysis showed the richness and diversity of bacterial communities were significantly different among ootheca, nymph and adult stage of P. americana. Taxonomic analysis showed Blattabacterium was the dominant genus in bacterial community of ootheca while the nutrient absorption-related genera including Christensenellaceae and Ruminococcaceae showed high relative abundance in nymph samples. Moreover, functional prediction analysis showed the metabolic categories in ootheca might have more influence on the basic life activities of the host than improved production and viability, while it was more associated to the society activities, reproduction and development of host in nymph and adult. It was suggested that the gut microbiota in each life stage might meet the requirements for environmental adaptability and survival of P. americana via transforming the composition and structure with specific metabolic capabilities. Overall, these results provided a novel sight to better understand the strong vitality and adaptability throughout life stages of P. americana.
Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KaSPI) play important roles in insect growth, development, digestion, metabolism and immune defence. In this study, based on the transcriptome of Mythimna separata, the cDNA sequence of MsKaSPI with Kazal domain was uploaded to GenBank (MN931651). Spatial and temporal expression analysis showed that MsKaSPI was expressed at different developmental stages and different tissues, and it was induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in third-instar larvae of M. separata. After 24 h infection by Beauveria bassiana, the expression level of MsKaSPI and the corresponding MsKaSPI content were significantly up-regulated, being 6.42-fold and 1.91-fold to the control group, respectively, while the activities of serine protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were inhibited. After RNA interference interfered with MsKaSPI for 6 h, the expression decreased by 73.44%, the corresponding content of MsKaSPI protein decreased by 55.66% after 12 h, and the activities of serine protease and trypsin were significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, both the larval and pupal stages of M. separata were prolonged, the weights were reduced and the number of eggs per female decreased by 181. Beauveria bassiana infection also increased the mortality of MsKaSPI-silenced M. separata by 18.96%. These prove MsKaSPI can not only result in slow growth and low fecundity of M. separata by regulating the activity of related protease, but also participate in the resistance to pathogenic fungi by regulating the serine protease inhibitor content and the activities of related serine protease.
Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
As the southernmost part of the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the northern Alxa area is characterized by abundant Permian magmatism and records key information on the geological evolution of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. This study reports new zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data of the early Permian (285–286 Ma) Huisentala gabbro and Huodonghaer diorites from the Zhusileng–Hangwula Belt in the northern Alxa area. The gabbro is characterized by high Al, Ca, Mg# and light rare-earth elements, and low K, P and high field strength elements (e.g., Ti, Nb and Ta). Furthermore, the gabbro shows heterogeneous zircon ϵHf(t) value (−2.5 to +2.6). The Huodonghaer diorites show high MgO (3.46–6.32 wt%), Mg# (49–58), Sr (408–617 ppm) and Ba (223–419 ppm), and low FeOT/MgO (1.27–1.83) and TiO2 (0.48–0.90 wt%), with geochemical features similar to the high-Mg andesite/diorite. They show radiogenic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +4.9 and high Th/Nb ratios. These features suggest that the Huisentala gabbro and the Huodonghaer diorites were derived from the partial melting of mantle peridotite that was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids and by subducted sediment-derived melts, respectively.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
This study analyzes the linewidth narrowing characteristics of free-space-running Brillouin lasers and investigates the approaches to achieve linewidth compression and power enhancement simultaneously. The results show that the Stokes linewidth behavior in a free-space-running Brillouin laser cavity is determined by the phase diffusion of the pump and the technical noise of the system. Experimentally, a Stokes light output with a power of 22.5 W and a linewidth of 3.2 kHz was obtained at a coupling mirror reflectivity of 96%, which is nearly 2.5 times compressed compared with the linewidth of the pump (7.36 kHz). In addition, the theorical analysis shows that at a pump power of 60 W and a coupling mirror reflectivity of 96%, a Stokes output with a linewidth of 1.6 kHz and up to 80% optical conversion efficiency can be achieved by reducing the insertion loss of the intracavity. This study provides a promising technical route to achieve high-power ultra-narrow linewidth special wavelength laser radiations.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Iodine is an essential nutrient that may change the occurrence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Apoptosis and DNA methylation participate in the pathogenesis and destructive mechanism of AIT. We detected the methylation and the expression of mRNA of intrinsic apoptosis-associated genes (YWHAG, ING4, BRSK2 and GJA1) to identify the potential interactions between the levels of methylation in these genes and different levels of iodine. 176 adult patients with AIT in Shandong Province, China, were included. The MethylTargetTM assay was used to verify the levels of methylation. We used PCR to detect the mRNA levels of the candidate genes. Interactions between methylation levels of the candidate genes and iodine levels were evaluated with multiplicative and addictive interaction models and GMDR. In the AIT group, YWHAG_1 and six CpG sites and BRSK2_1 and eight CpG sites were hypermethylated, whereas ING4_1 and one CpG site were hypomethylated. A negative correlation was found between methylation levels of YWHAG and mRNA expression. The combination of iodine fortification, YWHAG_1 hypermethylation and BRSK2_1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with elevated AIT risk. A four-locus model (YWHAG_1 × ING4_1 × BRSK2_1 × iodine level) was found to be the best model of the gene–environment interactions. We identified abnormal changes in the methylation status of YWHAG, ING4 and BRSK2 in patients with AIT in different iodine levels. Iodine fortification not only affected the methylation levels of YWHAG and BRSK2 but also interacted with the methylation levels of these genes and may ultimately increase the risk of AIT.
Zn is an important trace element involved in various biochemical processes in aquatic species. An 8-week rearing trial was thus conducted to investigate the effects of Zn on juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by feeding seven diets, respectively, supplemented with no Zn (Con), 60 and 120 mg/kg inorganic Zn (Sul60 and Sul120), and 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/kg organic Zn (Bio30, Bio60, Bio90 and Bio120). Sul120 and Bio120 groups showed significantly higher weight gain and specific growth rate than Con group, with Bio60 group obtaining the lowest viscerosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. 60 or 90 mg/kg organic Zn significantly facilitated whole body Zn retention. Up-regulation of hepatic superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities and decline of malondialdehyde contents indicated augmented antioxidant capacities by organic Zn. Zn treatment also lowered plasma aminotransferase levels while promoting acid phosphatase activity and hepatic transcription levels of alp1, acp1 and lyz-c than deprivation of Zn. The alterations in whole body and liver crude lipid and plasma TAG contents illustrated the regulatory effect of Zn on lipid metabolism, which could be possibly attributed to the changes in hepatic expressions of acc1, pparγ, atgl and cpt1. These findings demonstrated the capabilities of Zn in potentiating growth and morphological performance, antioxidant capacity, immunity as well as regulating lipid metabolism in M. salmoides. Organic Zn could perform comparable effects at same or lower supplementation levels than inorganic Zn, suggesting its higher efficiency. 60 mg/kg supplementation of organic Zn could effectively cover the requirements of M. salmoides.
According to the public data collected from the Health Commission of Gansu Province, China, regarding the COVID-19 pandemic during the summer epidemic cycle in 2022, the epidemiological analysis showed that the pandemic spread stability and the symptom rate (the number of confirmed cases divided by the sum of the number of asymptomatic cases and the number of confirmed cases) of COVID-19 were different among 3 main epidemic regions, Lanzhou, Linxia, and Gannan; both the symptom rate and the daily instantaneous symptom rate (daily number of confirmed cases divided by the sum of daily number of asymptomatic cases and daily number of confirmed cases) in Lanzhou were substantially higher than those in Linxia and Gannan. The difference in the food sources due to the high difference of the population ethnic composition in the 3 regions was probably the main driver for the difference of the symptom rates among the 3 regions. This work provides potential values for prevention and control of COVID-19 in different regions.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Water pollution by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is widespread and problematic. As a result, more research into economic Cr(VI) removal is needed. In this study, we created and employed an adsorption–reduction mechanism to remove Cr(VI). Magnetically reduced graphene oxide bentonite (MrGO-BT) is acid resistant and can undergo magnetic separation. The hydroxyl group of chitosan (CS) condensed with the functional groups on the surface of bentonite (BT), and the MrGO-BT sandwich has been fabricated and constructed from an Fe3O4 core layer sandwiched by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and a BT shell, with CS acting as a crosslinker. Cr(VI) elimination by MrGO-BT was exothermic and spontaneous according to thermodynamic analyses. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were characterized by the pseudo-second order kinetic theory and the Langmuir model, respectively. Regarding the elimination of Cr(VI), the greatest adsorption ability for Cr(VI) elimination achieved was 91.5 mg g–1. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that Cr(VI) was reduced by C–O–H on MrGO-BT to produce Cr(III) and H–C=O, and that Cr(III) chelated with amino groups or exchanged with BT after intercalation. In addition, the introduction of Cu2+ increased the positive charge of MrGO-BT and amplified the electrostatic interaction between Cr2O72− and HCrO4–, which is what caused Cr(VI) to be eliminated. Cu2+ and reduced Cr(III) combined with -NH2 on the surface of MrGO-BT to form -NH-Cr(III) or -NH-Cu2+, and Cr(VI) elimination via chelation and ion exchange was confirmed. MrGO-BT is shown to be an adsorbent with high acid resistance and good magnetic responsiveness and stability.
The low maturation rate of oocytes is an important reason for female infertility and failure of assisted pregnancy. The germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) is a landmark event of oocyte maturation. In our previous studies, we found that zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) was strongly concentrated in the nuclear region of germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and interacted with aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) and lamin A to promote GVBD. In the current study, we found that lamin A is mainly concentrated in the nuclear membrane. When ZP3 is knocked down, lamin A will be partially transferred to the nucleus of oocytes. The prelamin A is increased in both the nuclear membrane and nucleus, while phosphorylated lamin A (p-lamin A) is significantly reduced. AIPL1 was also proved to accumulate in the GV region of oocytes, and ZP3 deletion can significantly inhibit the aggregation of AIPL1 in the nuclear region. Similar to ZP3 knockdown, the absence of AIPL1 resulted in a decrease in the occurrence of GVBD, an increase in the amount of prelamin A, and a significant decrease in p-lamin A in oocytes developed in vitro. Finally, we propose the hypothesis that ZP3 can stabilize farnesylated prelamin A on the nuclear membrane of AIPL1, and promote its further processing into mature lamin A, therefore promoting the occurrence of GVBD. This study may be an important supplement for the mechanism of oocyte meiotic resumption and provide new diagnostic targets and treatment clues for infertility patients with oocyte maturation disorder.
This paper studies the open-loop equilibrium strategies for a class of non-zero-sum reinsurance–investment stochastic differential games between two insurers with a state-dependent mean expectation in the incomplete market. Both insurers are able to purchase proportional reinsurance contracts and invest their wealth in a risk-free asset and a risky asset whose price is modeled by a general stochastic volatility model. The surplus processes of two insurers are driven by two standard Brownian motions. The objective for each insurer is to find the equilibrium investment and reinsurance strategies to balance the expected return and variance of relative terminal wealth. Incorporating the forward backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs), we derive the sufficient conditions and obtain the general solutions of equilibrium controls for two insurers. Furthermore, we apply our theoretical results to two special stochastic volatility models (Hull–White model and Heston model). Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate our results.
The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
Pattern-forming with externally imposed symmetry is ubiquitous in nature but little studied. We present experimental studies of pattern formation and selection by spatial periodic forcing in rapidly rotating convection. When periodic topographic structures are constructed on the heated boundary, they modulate the local temperature and velocity fields. Symmetric convection patterns in the form of regular vortex lattices are observed near the onset of convection, when the periodicity of the external forcing is set close to the intrinsic vortex spacing. We show that the new patterns arise as a dynamical process of imperfect bifurcation which is well described by a Ginzburg–Landau-like model. We explore the phase diagram of buoyancy strength and periodicity of external forcing to find the optimal experimental settings for which the vortex patterns best match that of the external forcing.
Dietary fibre modulates gastrointestinal (GI) health and function, providing laxation, shifting microbiota, and altering bile acid (BA) metabolism. Fruit juice production removes the polyphenol- and fibre-rich pomace fraction. The effects of orange and apple pomaces on GI outcomes were investigated in healthy, free-living adults. Healthy adults were enrolled in two double-blinded, crossover trials, being randomised by baseline bowel movement (BM) frequency. In the first trial, subjects (n 91) received orange juice (OJ, 0 g fibre/d) or OJ + orange pomace (OJ + P, 10 g fibre/d) for 4 weeks, separated by a 3-week washout. Similarly, in the second trial, subjects (n 90) received apple juice (AJ, 0 g fibre/d) or AJ + apple pomace (AJ + P, 10 g fibre/d). Bowel habit diaries, GI tolerance surveys and 3-d diet records were collected throughout. Fresh faecal samples were collected from a participant subset for microbiota and BA analyses in each study. Neither pomace interventions influenced BM frequency. At Week 4, OJ + P tended to increase (P = 0·066) GI symptom occurrence compared with OJ, while AJ + P tended (P = 0·089) to increase flatulence compared with AJ. Faecalibacterium (P = 0·038) and Negativibacillus (P = 0·043) were differentially abundant between pre- and post-interventions in the apple trial but were no longer significant after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Baseline fibre intake was independently associated with several microbial genera in both trials. Orange or apple pomace supplementation was insufficient to elicit changes in bowel habits, microbiota diversity or BA of free-living adults with healthy baseline BM. Future studies should consider baseline BM frequency and habitual fibre intake.
It has been suggested that psychosocial factors are related to survival time of inpatients with cancer. However, there are not many studies examining the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and survival time among countries. This study investigated the relationship between SWB and survival time among three East Asian countries.
This international multicenter cohort study is a secondary analysis involving newly admitted inpatients with advanced cancer in palliative care units in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. SWB was measured using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS) at admission. We performed multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent prognostic factors.
A total of 2,638 patients treated at 37 palliative care units from January 2017 to September 2018 were analyzed. The median survival time was 18.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5–19.5) in Japan, 23.0 days (95% CI 19.9–26.1) in Korea, and 15.0 days (95% CI 13.0–17.0) in Taiwan. SWB was a significant factor correlated with survival in Taiwan (hazard ratio [HR] 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; p = 0.04), while it was insignificant in Japan (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.00–1.22; p = 0.06), and Korea (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.77–1.35; p = 0.89).
Significance of results
SWB on admission was associated with survival in patients with advanced cancer in Taiwan but not Japan or Korea. The findings suggest the possibility of a positive relationship between spiritual care and survival time in patients with far advanced cancer.