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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a critical molecule for the self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Recent reports have shown that Oct4 also controls cell-cycle progression and enhances the proliferation of various types of cells. As the high proliferation of donor fibroblasts is critical to the production of transgenic pigs, using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we analysed the effect of Oct4 overexpression on the proliferation of porcine fibroblasts and embryos. Porcine endogenous Oct4 cDNA was cloned, sequenced and inserted into an expression vector. The vector was transfected into porcine fibroblasts, and a stable Oct4-overexpressed cell line was established by antibiotic selection. Oct4 expression was validated by the immunostaining of Oct4. Cell morphology was changed to sharp, and both proliferation and migration abilities were enhanced in Oct4-overexpressed cells. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that p16, Bcl2 and Myc were upregulated in Oct4-overexpressed cells. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was performed using Oct4-overexpressed cells, and the development of Oct4 embryos was compared with that of wild-type cloned embryos. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates were improved in the Oct4 embryos. Interestingly, blastocyst formation of the Oct4 embryos was observed as early as day 5 in culture, while blastocysts were observed from day 6 in wild-type cloned embryos. In conclusion, the overexpression of Oct4 enhanced the proliferation of both porcine fibroblasts and embryos.
We study the photocurrent from photoexcited charged carriers excited with lasers of energy both above and below the energy gap in CdS nanostructures. We observe non-linear photocurrents in CdS nanosheet devices in the metal-semiconductor-metal configuration with Schottky contacts for sub-band gap excitations. Analysis of two-photon absorption dominated photocurrents reveals a nonlinear coefficient of β = 2 cm/GW for these nanosheet devices, which is comparable to those of bulk CdS. We demonstrate the use of the photocurrent polarization measurements to determine the orientation of atoms in the nanosheet.
Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35–74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft® (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 μg/d in men and 200 to 300 μg/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use.
To better understand the epidemiology of colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), we performed an 8-year retrospective study of all hospitalized patients with recurrent VRE colonization after they were documented as being clear of VRE and compared the primary colonization isolates and recolonization isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Tn1546 typing. Review of the medical records of all patients showed that of the 15 patients with recurrent colonization, six continued to be hospitalized on the same floor. Five were discharged home and then readmitted. Four were moved to another floor. Patients who remained on the same floor were recolonized with a strain that was indistinguishable from the original colonizing strain. Patients who were moved or were discharged had de novo VRE colonization with strains distinct from the original colonizing strain.
Trapping experiments have been performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the performance of AgX sorbent media in capturing volatile iodine during the oxidation of irradiated oxide fuel. The demonstration of iodine release and capture from the used fuel has been accomplished with laboratory-scale equipment in a hot cell environment. Iodine loadings as high as 6 ug/g media have been achieved via chemical adsorption with filter efficiencies in excess of 90%. In addition to iodine, significant quantities of tritium have also been collected on the AgX filter media. Filter media loaded with radioactive iodine has been sequestered in a tin matrix by hot isostatic pressing at 200°C. The placement and encapsulation of the sorbent media was examined by neutron radiography, thus confirming the sequestration of radioactive iodine.
Novel ultrafine eutectic composites containing structural and spatial heterogeneities have been systematically developed in an Mg–Cu–Zn ternary system. Microstructural investigations of the ultrafine eutectic composites revealed that the bimodal eutectic structure consists of a mixture of cellular-type fine (α-Mg + MgZn2) and anomalous-type coarse (α-Mg + MgZn2 + MgCuZn) eutectic structures. An Mg72Cu5Zn23 alloy composed of the bimodal eutectic structure without micron-scale α-Mg dendrites presents a strong improvement of yield strength up to 455 MPa with a decent plastic strain of 5%. The rotation of the bimodal eutectic colony along the interfaces is considered to be an effective way to dissipate the stress localization thus enhancing the macroscopic plasticity.
Human complement regulatory protein hCD46 may reduce the hyperacute rejection (HAR) in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. In this study, an hCD46 gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. Treatment of human serum did not affect the survival of hCD46-transgenic EG cells, whereas the treatment significantly reduced the survival of non-transgenic EG cells (p < 0.01). The transgenic EG cells presumably capable of alleviating HAR were transferred into enucleated oocytes. Among 235 reconstituted oocytes, 35 (14.9%) developed to the blastocyst stage. Analysis of individual embryos indicated that 80.0% (28/35) of embryos contained the transgene hCD46. The result of the present study demonstrates resistance of hCD46-transgenic EG cells against HAR, and the usefulness of the transgenic approach may be predicted by this cytolytic assessment prior to actual production of transgenic pigs. Subsequently performed EG cell nuclear transfer gave rise to hCD46-transgenic embryos. Further study on the transfer of these embryos to recipients may produce hCD46-transgenic pigs.
The crystalline quality of bonded Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques detect slight structural defects in the SOI layer. If a pure crystalline silicon dielectric function is assumed for the SOI layer, the spectroscopic ellipsometry data fitting yields an unacceptably large discrepancy between the experimental and modeled data. The best fits for all the samples result in a dielectric function of the SOI layer that consists of a physical mixture of crystalline silicon and about 4 % to 7 % of amorphous silicon. Using such a mixture indicates that there are still some defects in the SOI layer when compared with the high-quality bulk crystalline silicon. This observation is further supported by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra of all SOI samples exhibit a feature at about 495 cm−1 that is not observed in the crystalline silicon spectrum. Features similar to the 495 cm−1 feature have been reported in the literature and attributed to dislocations or faults in the silicon lattice.
In this paper, we report the growth of ZnO films on silicon substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. These films were deposited on Si(111) directly as well as by using thin buffer layers of AlN and GaN. All the films were found to have c-axis-preferred orientation aligned with normal to the substrate. Films with AlN and GaN buffer layers were epitaxial with preferred in-plane orientation, while those directly grown on Si(111) were found to have random in-plane orientation. A decrease in the frequency of the Raman mode and a red shift of the band-edge photoluminescence peak due to the presence of tensile strain in the film, was observed. Various possible sources for the observed biaxial strain are discussed.
In this work, ZnO thin films were grown on amorphous fused silica and pre-oxidized silicon substrates by using pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films were highly crystalline and c-axis oriented. The surface morphologies of the films were observed by using scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Free exciton absorption was observed at room temperature for the film grown on fused silica substrate. The strong near-UV luminescence peaked at 380 nm were observed for all the films and was attributed to the phonon-related exciton emission. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the luminescence intensity is also reported.
A new structure of triode type field emission displays based on single-walled carbon nanotube emitters is demonstrated. In this structure, gate electrodes are situated under cathode electrodes with an in-between insulating layer, so called under-gate type triode. Electron emission from the carbon nanotube emitters is modulated by changing gate voltages. A threshold voltage is approximately 70 V at the anode bias of 275 V.
Recent studies indicate that reactively sputtered FeCrTaN nanocrystalline thin films have many of the properties [large magnetization (4πMs), anisotropy (Han), and resistivity (ρ)] required for application in high Q (>1000), magnetically tunable devices operating in the VHF/UHF (∼50 MHz to 500 MHz) frequency range. These films had thickness (d) of ∼0.1 -µm, but film thickness of ∼1-µm may be required for many devices. Although most previous research has shown that the magnetic properties of sputtered films are significantly deteriorated when d∼1-µm, there are recent reports that those of reactively sputtered nanocrystalline films of similar alloys (FeTaN, CoAl/SiO) are independent of thickness to d≈1-2-µm. Accordingly, this work investigated the possibility of reactively sputtering FeCrTa alloys in O/N gas mixtures to obtain films with device quality properties, that are independent of thickness to 1-2µm. The correlations between their magnetic and electrical properties, and their nano-heterogeneous microstructure, were studied to determine optimum reactive gas mixtures and sputtering parameters. Cross-section TEM studies were conducted to investigate the origins of the thickness independent properties, and the unexpected increases in anisotropy.
The adhesion strength between a low-firing substrate consisting of an alumina/glass composite and a copper thick film was affected by the addition of cupric oxide and glass frit to the copper paste in a new co-firing process. An interlayer, 3–4 μm in thickness, was produced in the metal-ceramic interface during the new co-firing process due to the diffusion of copper. At the same time, the adhesion strength was improved by controlling the cupric oxide content. The addition of about 3 wt.% glass frit (softening point = 670 °C, based on the calcium-barium borosilicate glass composition) to the metal paste resulted in highest adhesion strength of 3 kg/mm2 with a shift of the debonding site toward the ceramic substrate within the interlayer. The shift of the debonding site could be observed by comparing the ratios of Al2O3/Cu and Ca concentration at the test pad areas on the substrate after debonding. The shift of the debonding site is attributed to the migration of glass frit into the interfacial region. The migration of glass frit occurred easily when the softening point of the glass frit was compatible with the new co-firing process, regardless of how much frit was used.
The mechanism of the 1:1 nonstoichiometric short-range ordering in donor-doped Pb(B′1/3B″1/3)O3-type relaxor perovskites was examined using the La2O3-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) system as a typical example. Based on the dielectric analysis and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, the observed increase in the degree of diffuse phase transition (DPT) in the presence of La2O3 was interpreted as the enhancement of the 1:1 nonstoichiometric short-range ordering accompanied with the growth of the negatively charged nanodomains. The mechanism of the defect process responsible for the 1:1 nonstoichiometric short-range ordering was elucidated by analyzing the electrical conductivity of the La-doped PMN system as a function of the partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that the substitution of La3+ ions for Pb2+ ions in the A-site sublattice of perovskite PMN produced the positively charged sites with a concomitant generation of electrons for the electronic compensation. This expedites the growth of the nonstoichiometrically ordered nanodomains in a disordered matrix.
We present performance results of 4-inch full-color field emission display (FED) devices which are constructed by using Spindt type arrays with 80,000,000 Mo-metal tips, spacers, uniquely-developed low voltage color phosphors. Spindt type microtips with less than 1.1 urn in hole size are fabricated using a total internal reflection (TIR) holographic lithograpy method. Each color phosphor is electrophoretically deposited on the ITO line. The spacer which is screen-printed is characterized by a 3-dimentional surface analysis system. Electron emission pattern and luminance test of each pixel without cross talk are analyzed under different gate voltages. In addition, the total pressure and residual gas distributions inside the panel are investigated at various gap sizes between the cathode and anode plates.
Color phosphors have been deposited on indium-tin glasses by utilizing an electrophoretic process for the application to prototype 4-inch full color FED devices. The deposition suspension is prepared with color phosphors of l-3um size, isopropanol, charger and binder. Various parameters, such as deposition time and applied voltages, are systematically performed to this end. As a result, each phosphor exhibited uniform thickness of about 6–10um over the whole plate. Electrical properties of the deposited phosphors are investigated and compared both in the vacuum chamber and in fully-sealed 4” FED conditions. In addition, they are extensively characterized by the SEM and 3-dimentional analysis. Experimental results confirm that the phosphor quality in real FED devices is significantly affected by deposition conditions.
The structural perfection and defects of Ag films deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(ll1) and Si(001) substrates have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering (RBS)/channeling and electron microscopy. In spite of the large lattice mismatch (∼25 %) between Ag and Si, relatively high-quality Ag single crystal films (6∼10 % surface minimum yield) were grown on both Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The primary defects contained in the Ag/Si(111) were double-positioning twins. The quantity of twinning depends on the film thickness and the substrate condition. For both Ag/Si(111) and Ag/Si(001) epitaxial systems, a high density defect region was contained in the Ag film within ∼1000 Å of the interface. Ag films grown on misoriented Si(l11) substrates ( 4° off normal ) were misoriented by 0.5° towards the surface normal. Possible explanations of these defect formations associated with the large lattice mismatch are presented.
In this work we measured the functional dependence of the solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth of amorphous silicon on the implanted phosphorous concentration, Np. The growth rates of self-ion amorphized layers in silicon wafers with (100) substrate orientation were measured by in situ, high precision, isothermal cw laser interferometry for temperatures from 460°C to 590°C, and concentrations in the range 2x1017 cm-3<Np<4x1020 cm-3. For low impurity concentrations, the fractional increase in the intrinsic SPE growth velocity ΔV/Vi depended linearly on Np as previously established for boron. For a given impurity concentration, the relative change V/Vi decreased with increasing annealing temperature.