Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of perfusion 99mTc-exametazime single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison with dopaminergic 123I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-n-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) SPECT imaging.
Methods: Subjects underwent 99mTc-exametazime scanning (39 controls, 36 AD, 30 DLB) and 123I-FP-CIT scanning (33 controls, 33 AD, 28 DLB). For each scan, five raters performed visual assessments blind to clinical diagnosis on selected transverse 99mTc-exametazime images in standard stereotactic space. Diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-exametazime was compared to 123I-FP-CIT results for the clinically relevant subgroups AD and DLB using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Results: Inter-rater agreement for categorizing uptake was “moderate” (mean κ = 0.53) for 99mTc-exametazime and “excellent” (mean κ = 0.88) for 123I-FP-CIT. For AD and DLB, consensus rating matched clinical diagnosis in 56% of cases using 99mTc-exametazime and 84% using 123I-FP-CIT. In distinguishing AD from DLB, ROC analysis revealed superior diagnostic accuracy with 123I-FP-CIT (ROC curve area 0.83, sensitivity 78.6%, specificity 87.9%) compared to occipital 99mTc-exametazime (ROC curve area 0.64, sensitivity 64.3%, specificity 63.6%) p = 0.03.
Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy was superior with 123I-FP-CIT compared to 99mTc-exametazime in the differentiation of DLB from AD.