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Background: Greater than 10% of hospitalized MRSA carriers experience serious MRSA infection in the year following discharge. Prevention opportunities have primarily focused on hospital stays; however postdischarge interventions have the potential to reduce morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The CLEAR trial found a 30% hazard reduction in postdischarge MRSA infections among patients who had inpatient MRSA cultures and were given postdischarge decolonization (5 days twice-a-month for 6 months) relative to hygiene education alone. We conducted a cost analysis of the CLEAR intervention to quantify the economic implications and understand the value of adopting this MRSA decolonization strategy. Methods: We constructed a decision model to estimate the one-year healthcare utilization and costs associated with postdischarge decolonization relative to hygiene education. Trial results for MRSA infection risk and downstream outcomes (including outpatient and emergency room visits, hospitalizations, related nursing home stays, and postdischarge antibiotics) were used to parameterize the model. Other medical care and prescription drug costs were based on Medicare Fee Schedules, Red Book and the literature. Patient out-of-pocket costs and time costs associated with subsequent infections were from a survey of trial participants experiencing infection (n=405). All costs were reported in 2019 US dollars. The analysis was conducted using healthcare system and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on key parameters. Results: Among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 hospitalized MRSA carriers, we estimated that a postdischarge decolonization intervention versus hygiene education would result in at least 36 fewer subsequent MRSA infections (130 vs 93 of 1,000, respectively) and >40 fewer MRSA-attributable healthcare events including 32 hospitalizations and 6 postdischarge nursing home visits over the course of a year. Assuming an intervention cost of $185 per individual, the program would result in an overall cost savings of $469,000 per 1,000 MRSA carriers undergoing decolonization. This translates to an overall savings of $13,200 per infection averted and $9,000 per infection averted from the healthcare system perspective. Even assuming a lower infection rate or a less effective intervention (15% reduction in infections vs 30% in the CLEAR trial), or a more expensive (up to $653 per patient) intervention, a decolonization program would still result in cost-savings for society, the healthcare system and patients. Conclusions: In addition to health benefits of preventing infections, postdischarge decolonization of MRSA carriers yields substantial savings to society and the healthcare system. Future recommendations for reducing postdischarge MRSA-related disease among MRSA carriers should consider routine decolonization at hospital discharge.
Funding: This study was supported by a grant from the AHRQ Healthcare-Associated Infections Program (R01HS019388) and by the University of California Irvine Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, which was funded by a grant from the NIH Clinical and Translational Sciences Award program (UL1 TR000153).
Disclosures: Dr. Huang reports conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), Mölnlycke, 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline. Ms. Singh reports conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline. Dr. Rashid, conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker(Sage Products), Clorox, and Medline. Dr. McKinnell reports receiving grant support to his institution from Melinta Therapeutics, and fees for serving as a research investigator from Lightship, conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories and Medline, and serving as cofounder of Expert Stewardship. Dr. Miller reports receiving grant support from Gilead Sciences, Merck, Abbott, Cepheid, Genentech, Atox Bio, and Paratek Pharmaceuticals, grant support and fees for serving on an advisory board from Achaogen and grant support, consulting fees, and fees for serving on an advisory board from Tetraphase and conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline.
A series of metal oxides (MnFeOx, MnCrOx, MnTiOx, and MnFeTiOx) supported on attapulgite (ATP) were synthesized by coprecipitation for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. Then, they were subjected to appropriate characterizations for their properties (XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, etc.). The catalytic activity of MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst was over 95% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between of 175 and 300 °C, and 88% N2 selectivity. Moreover, MnFeTiOx/ATP presented excellent potassium resistance relative to the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst, and its denitration performance was significantly improved. The NOx conversion rate could be restored to nearly 90% at 210 °C after removing potassium via washing of K–MnFeTiOx/ATP. In addition, the MnFeTiOx/ATP showed better SO2 resistance and stability than the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst. Therefore, the MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst has been proved to have broad prospects in NH3-SCR.
Novel cerium-loaded MnTiOx/attapulgite (Ce/MnTiOx/ATP) and cerium-doped MnTiOx/attapulgite (Ce–MnTiOx/ATP) catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with ammonia (NH3-SCR) were synthesized by co-precipitation methods. The results of catalytic activity testing for the as-prepared Ce–MnTiOx/ATP and Ce/MnTiOx/ATP indicated that the Ce–MnTiOx/ATP catalyst exhibited better catalytic performance with over 80% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between 170 and 350°, and the highest NOx conversion attained for the Ce–MnTiOx/ATP catalyst was 97.5%. A series of characterization illustrated that the Ce–MnTiOx/ATP catalyst exhibited a higher specific surface area, oxygen vacancy, redox ability, and acid site as compared to that of the Ce/MnTiOx/ATP catalyst. The performance tests showed that the Ce–MnTiOx/ATP catalyst exhibited not only better SO2 & H2O resistance but also higher N2 selectivity and good stability. Therefore, the Ce–MnTiOx/ATP catalyst was testified to be a promising catalyst for NH3-SCR.
A 50-yr resolution reconstruction of climate and environment variability during the period 43–14 ka was developed using 26 high-precision U/Th dates and 390 oxygen isotope (δ18O) data of a stalagmite (SJ1) collected from Songjia Cave in central China, which is close to the northwestern boundary of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM). The δ18O record in SJ1 displays significant millennial-scale changes that correlate well in timing and duration with Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 (H4) identified in high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Four 230Th dates constrain the H4 event precisely to the period of 39.7 to 38.3 ka. Notable centennial variations of the ASM activity could be observed within the H4 event. The magnitude and duration of D/O event 4.1 recorded in SJ1 are similar to those archived in east China but different from those documented in southwest China, suggesting that the manifestation of this event may be regionally different. The timing, duration and structure of D/O events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 suggest that temperature changes in both hemispheres have exerted significant influences on the ASM variations in central China.
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