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This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Seasonal energy intake of Tibetan sheep on the harsh Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) fluctuates greatly and is often well below maintenance requirements. The aim of this study was to gain insight into how the hypothalamus regulates energy homoeostasis in Tibetan sheep. We compared Tibetan and Small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed), which were each allocated randomly into four groups and offered one of four diets that differed in digestible energy densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ/kg DM. Sheep were weighed every 2 weeks, and it was assumed that the change in body weight (BW) reflected the change in energy balance. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in Tibetan sheep had greater protein expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) when in negative energy balance, but lesser protein expressions of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) when in positive energy balance than Small-tailed Han sheep. As a result, Tibetan sheep had a lesser BW loss when in negative energy balance and stored more energy and gained more BW when in positive energy balance than Small-tailed Han sheep with the same dietary intake. Moreover, in the hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulation pathway, Tibetan sheep had greater adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α 2 protein expression than Small-tailed Han sheep, which supported the premise of a better ability to regulate energy homoeostasis and better growth performance. These differences in the hypothalamic NPY/AgRP, POMC/CART and AMPK pathways between breeds conferred an advantage to the Tibetan over Small-tailed Han sheep to cope with low energy intake on the harsh QTP.
A novel ionic liquid/α-ZrP (C16MIM/α-ZrP) lamellar nanocomposite was fabricated via the electrostatic self-assembly deposition technique by using exfoliated α-ZrP nanosheets and guest molecules (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as building blocks under mild conditions. C16MIM/α-ZrP nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchronous thermal analyzer. The net interlayer spacing of α-ZrP determined by XRD confirmed that the C16MIM cations formed a monolayer arrangement between the α-ZrP nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of C16MIM/α-ZrP composite were observed using SEM and TEM. The C16MIM/α-ZrP modified glass carbon electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite in weak base media. The results obtained with differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the C16MIM/α-ZrP hybrid detected nitrite linearly in the concentration range from 7.3 μM to 1.25 mM with the detection limit of 1.26 μM (S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared sensor showed outstanding reproducibility, high stability, and anti-interference capability.
This study aimed to gain insight into how adipose tissue of Tibetan sheep regulates energy homoeostasis to cope with low energy intake under the harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We compared Tibetan and Small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed), all wethers and 1·5 years of age, which were each divided randomly into four groups and offered diets of different digestible energy (DE) densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ DE/kg DM. When the sheep lost body mass and were assumed to be in negative energy balance: (1) adipocyte diameter in subcutaneous adipose tissue was smaller and decreased to a greater extent in Tibetan than in Small-tailed Han sheep, but the opposite occurred in the visceral adipose tissue; (2) Tibetan sheep showed higher insulin receptor mRNA expression and lower concentrations of catabolic hormones than Small-tailed Han sheep and (3) Tibetan sheep had lower capacity for glucose and fatty acid uptake than Small-tailed Han sheep. Moreover, Tibetan sheep had lower AMPKα mRNA expression but higher mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA expression in the adipocytes than Small-tailed Han sheep. We concluded that Tibetan sheep had lower catabolism but higher anabolism in adipose tissue and reduced the capacity for glucose and fatty acid uptake to a greater extent than Small-tailed Han sheep to maintain energy homoeostasis when in negative energy balance. These responses provide Tibetan sheep with a high ability to cope with low energy intake and with the harsh environment of the QTP.
Atomic electron tomography (AET) has become a powerful tool for atomic-scale structural characterization in three and four dimensions. It provides the ability to correlate structures and properties of materials at the single-atom level. With recent advances in data acquisition methods, iterative three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithms, and post-processing methods, AET can now determine 3D atomic coordinates and chemical species with sub-Angstrom precision, and reveal their atomic-scale time evolution during dynamical processes. Here, we review the recent experimental and algorithmic developments of AET and highlight several groundbreaking experiments, which include pinpointing the 3D atom positions and chemical order/disorder in technologically relevant materials and capturing how atoms rearrange during early nucleation at four-dimensional atomic resolution.
The nutritional intake of Tibetan sheep on the harsh Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is often under maintenance requirements, especially during the long, cold winter. However, they have adapted well and even thrive under these conditions. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into how the rumen epithelium of Tibetan sheep has adapted to the consumption of low-energy-level diets. For this purpose, we compared Tibetan and small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed, all wethers and 1·5 years of age), which were divided randomly into one of four groups and offered ad libitum diets of different digestible energy (DE) densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ DE/kg DM. The Tibetan sheep had higher rumen concentrations of total SCFA, acetate, butyrate and iso-acids but lower concentrations of propionate than small-tailed Han sheep. The Tibetan sheep had higher absorption capability of SCFA due to the greater absorption surface area and higher mRNA expression of the SCFA absorption relative genes than small-tailed Han sheep. For the metabolism of SCFA in the rumen epithelium, the small-tailed Han sheep showed higher utilisation of the ketogenesis pathway than Tibetan sheep; however, Tibetan sheep had greater regulation capacity in SCFA metabolism pathways. These differences between breeds allowed the Tibetan sheep to have greater capability of absorbing SCFA and better capacity to regulate the metabolism of SCFA, which would allow them to cope with low energy intake better than small-tailed Han sheep.