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Suppose you need to complete a task of 5 steps, each of which has equal difficulty and pass rate. You somehow have a privilege that can ensure you pass one of the steps, but you need to decide which step to be privileged before you start the task. Which step do you want to privilege? Mathematically speaking, the effect of each step on the final outcome is identical, and so there seems to be no prima facie reason for a preference. Five studies were conducted to explore this issue. In Study 1, participants could place the privilege on any of steps 1–5. Participants were most inclined to privilege step 5. In Study 2, participants needed to pay some money to purchase the privilege for steps 1–5, respectively. Participants would pay most money for step 5. Study 3 directly reminded participants that the probability of success of the whole task is mathematically the same, no matter on which step the privilege is placed, but most of the participants still prefer to privilege the final step. Study 4 supposed that the outcomes of all steps were not announced until all steps were finished, and asked how painful participants would feel if they passed all steps but one. People thought they would feel most painful when they failed at the final step. In Study 5, an implicit association test showed that people associated the first step with easy and the final step with hard. These results demonstrated the phenomenon of the final step effect and suggested that both anticipated painfulness and stereotype may play a role in this phenomenon.
The endowment effect is a well-documented decision phenomenon, referring to a tendency that people price a commodity higher when selling it than when buying it. This phenomenon can be interpreted as a sort of inertia, an unwillingness to make a change, or in other words an attachment to the status-quo. People with autism dislike social interaction, and are thus probably less willing to buy and sell items and more attached to the status quo. Previous research revealed that T-carriers of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene, rs1611115 (C-1021T), are associated with autism and difficulty in social interaction. Therefore, rs1611115 may modulate the endowment effect. In the current study, the subjects sold and bought lotteries with various probabilities of winning money and provided saliva for genotyping. We found that T-carriers (people of CT genotype in this study) exhibited greater endowment effects compared to people of CC genotype. We discuss another two possible explanations of our results: empathy and loss aversion. This is the first attempt to research the endowment effect from the perspective of genes. The result indicates that an SNP of genes (an innate factor) can exert an observable effect on human market activities.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Indexed powder diffraction patterns and related crystallographic data are reported for ErNiSb, which is not represented in the X-ray Powder Diffraction File. The compound ErNiSb is cubic [space group F43m, Z=4, a=6.2693(1) Å]. The R=0.067 indicates that experimental intensities agree well with the calculated patterns.
The crystal structure of the rare earth (RE) compound CeFeGe3 has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction and refined by the Rietveld profile fitting method. The compound has the tetragonal BaNiSn3-type structure, space group I4mm (No. 107) a=4.3294(1) Å, c=9.9444(3) Å, V=186.39 Å3, Z=2, and Dx=7.372 g·cm−3. The figure of merit FN for the powder data is F30=184.3(0.0037,44). The structure refinement was performed with 106 reflections and led to Rp=13.2% and Rwp=18.2%. Powder data are given.
The compound DyNiSn has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction. The X-ray diffraction patterns for this compound at room temperature are reported. DyNiSn is orthorhombic with lattice parameters a=7.1018(1) Å, b=7.6599(2) Å, c=4.4461(2) Å, space group Pna21 and 4 formula units of DyNiSn in unit cell. The Smith and Snyder Figure-of-Merit F30 for this powder pattern is 26.7(0.0178,63).
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