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The majority of plant viral disease is transmitted and spread by insect vectors in the field. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is the only efficient vector for rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating plant virus that infects multiple grain crops, including rice, maize, and wheat. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in various biological processes. However, little is known about whether ABC transporters affect virus infection in insects. In this study, RBSDV accumulation was significantly reduced in L. striatellus after treatment with verapamil, an effective inhibitor of ABC transporters. Thirty-four ABC transporter genes were identified in L. striatellus and expression analysis showed that LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, after RBSDV infection. LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were expressed during all developmental stages, and LsABCG9 was highly expressed in the midgut of L. striatellus. Knockdown of LsABCF2 promoted RBSDV accumulation, while knockdown of LsABCG9 suppressed RBSDV accumulation in L. striatellus. Our data showed that L. striatellus might upregulate the expression of LsABCF2 and downregulate LsABCG9 expression to suppress RBSDV infection. These results will contribute to understanding the effects of ABC transporters on virus transmission and provide theoretical basis for virus management in the field.
The microstructure and texture evolution of Ni-5 at%W (Ni5W) alloy substrates were investigated by in situ tensile testing along the rolling direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and at 45° to the RD (45°-RD), as well as by electron backscatter diffraction characterization. The tensile stress direction had a significant influence on the texture evolution. The cubic texture in the Ni-5 at%W alloy exhibited severe degradation when the tensile angle was 45°-RD. In contrast, the cubic texture was relatively stable under high deformation along the RD or TD. It was found that the slip line system in the 45°-RD specimen was the key to the contrasting behavior. The effect of the tensile testing angle on the cubic texture evolution for Ni–W substrates was investigated, and the corresponding effect on the superconducting properties of coated materials was studied.
In December 2019, the first confirmed case of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus was reported. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently spreading around the world. The relationships among the pandemic and its associated travel restrictions, social distancing measures, contact tracing, mask-wearing habits and medical consultation efficiency have not yet been extensively assessed. Based on the epidemic data reported by the Health Commission of Wenzhou, we analysed the developmental characteristics of the epidemic and modified the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model in three discrete ways. (1) According to the implemented preventive measures, the epidemic was divided into three stages: initial, outbreak and controlled. (2) We added many factors, such as health protections, travel restrictions and social distancing, close-contact tracing and the time from symptom onset to hospitalisation (TSOH), to the model. (3) Exposed and infected people were subdivided into isolated and free-moving populations. For the parameter estimation of the model, the average TSOH and daily cured cases, deaths and imported cases can be obtained through individual data from epidemiological investigations. The changes in daily contacts are simulated using the intracity travel intensity (ICTI) from the Baidu Migration Big Data platform. The optimal values of the remaining parameters are calculated by the grid search method. With this model, we calculated the sensitivity of the control measures with regard to the prevention of the spread of the epidemic by simulating the number of infected people in various hypothetical situations. Simultaneously, through a simulation of a second epidemic, the challenges from the rebound of the epidemic were analysed, and prevention and control recommendations were made. The results show that the modified SEIR model can effectively simulate the spread of COVID-19 in Wenzhou. The policy of the lockdown of Wuhan, the launch of the first-level Public Health Emergency Preparedness measures on 23 January 2020 and the implementation of resident travel control measures on 31 January 2020 were crucial to COVID-19 control.
Nickel-coated carbon nanotubes (Ni-CNTs) were achieved by electroless plating. Laser cladded IN718 and IN718 with 10, 30, and 50 wt% additions of Ni-CNTs were fabricated. The structural evolution of CNTs in the laser-deposited layers was studied; the microstructure, tensile, and wear properties of the laser-cladded alloys were characterized. The results show that CNTs in the laser-deposited layers are mostly transformed to carbon nanoproducts (CNPs) in the forms of graphene nanosheets, graphene fragments, carbon nanoribbons, and diamond-like nanoparticles by unzipping, interbonding, collapsing, and curvature of CNTs. The interdendritic Laves phase formation is dramatically depressed due to the addition of Ni-CNTs, but the excess addition of the Ni-CNTs can undesirably increase the formation of NbC. The addition of Ni-CNTs effectively improves the tensile and wear properties. The most superior tensile and wear properties are achieved in the layers with 30 and 50 wt% additions of Ni-CNTs, respectively. The generation of intermetallic phase and CNPs are revealed to be two dominant effects both on the tensile and wear properties of the laser-cladded alloys.
Southern China is affected by multi-stage tectonic activities, with strong fold deformation, complex fault systems and poor shale gas preservation conditions. Here, we used shale samples from the lower Silurian Longmaxi shale in the complex tectonic area of Southern China, to study the relationship between differential structural deformation, and pore structure and adsorption capacity. According to the deformation mechanism of the shale, it is further divided into brittle-slip rheological deformation (BD) and ductile-slip rheological deformation (DD). The results show that all micro-fractures can be observed under scanning electron microscopy in deformed shale samples, but in shale samples with different types of rheological deformation, the micro-fractures have large differences in scale, fracture length and lateral connectivity. The micro-fractures developed in DD shales are small in scale and short in fracture length, but have strong local connectivity. In contrast, brittle minerals are more developed in BD shales, and interlayer shearing has formed micro-fractures with large fracture length and good lateral connectivity, which is beneficial for later fracturing. In these two types of deformed shales, pores in organic matter are rare, and sporadic organic pores have small pore size and poor connectivity. The total pore volume (1.8–2.4 × 10−2 cm3 g–1) of BD shale samples is higher than that of DD shale samples (0.8–1.6 × 10−2 cm3 g–1). There is a positive correlation between total pore volume and quartz content. In addition, the specific surface area (12–18 m2 g–1) of DD shale samples is larger than that of BD shale samples (6–12 m2 g–1).
The link between schizophrenia and cigarette smoking has been well established through observational studies. However, the cause–effect relationship remains unclear.
We conducted Mendelian randomisation analyses to assess any causal relationship between genetic variants related to four smoking-related traits and the risk of schizophrenia.
We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of smoking-related traits and schizophrenia (7711 cases, 18 327 controls) in East Asian populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) correlated with smoking behaviours (smoking initiation, smoking cessation, age at smoking initiation and quantity of smoking) were investigated in relation to schizophrenia using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. Further sensitivity analyses, including Mendelian randomisation-Egger (MR-Egger), weighted median estimates and leave-one-out analysis, were used to test the consistency of the results.
The associated SNPs for the four smoking behaviours were not significantly associated with schizophrenia status. Pleiotropy did not inappropriately affect the results.
Cigarette smoking is a complex behaviour in people with schizophrenia. Understanding factors underlying the observed association remains important; however, our findings do not support a causal role of smoking in influencing risk of schizophrenia.
The various vision-based tactile sensors have been developed for robotic perception in recent years. In this paper, the novel soft robotic finger embedded with the visual sensor is proposed for perception. It consists of a colored soft inner chamber, an outer structure, and an endoscope camera. The bending perception algorithm based on image preprocessing and deep learning is proposed. The boundary of color regions and the position of marker dots are extracted from the inner chamber image and label image, respectively. Then the convolutional neural network with multi-task learning is trained to obtain bending states of the finger. Finally, the experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The plasma in the scrape-off layer (SOL) has an important effect on the coupling of the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The high-frequency B-dot (HFB) probes have been installed to investigate the behaviour of ICRF waves on EAST. The fast and slow ICRF wave field amplitudes are measured and a domain parallel wavenumber is deduced. Results of measurements on a test experimental platform and EAST experiments are presented, which include vacuum and plasma situations. In vacuum it is found that field amplitudes increase linearly with ICRF power. Besides, during plasma operation, field amplitudes measured were decreased by an order of magnitude and no linear relation with power was observed. Fast and slow wave power densities fluctuate strongly with plasma density. The experimental results in the laboratory coincide with the simulation results and allow for validating of the measurement method.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) provides an integrity service for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The conventional RAIM algorithm is based on the assumption of a single fault and typically uses the forward-backward method, which is based on the w-test or correlation analysis methods, to exclude the faults. It is suitable for single fault detection and exclusion, while it can lead to inefficiency, can be misleading and can even fail in the exclusion of multiple faults. To solve this problem, an improved method based on consensus voting of the w-test and correlation analysis methods is presented. To verify the performance of the improved method, tests using Global Positioning System (GPS)/BeiDou System (BDS) data have been carried out in comparison with the conventional methods in terms of false and correct faults exclusion rate and computational complexity in the case of a different number of faults. Results show that the improved method has almost the same correct exclusion rate compared to the conventional RAIM in the case of a single fault. It is worth noting that the improved method has a higher correct exclusion probability and computational efficiency as well as a lower possibility of false exclusion in the case of multiple faults.
Ring artifacts are undesirable and complicate the analysis and interpretation of microstructures in synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Here, we propose a new method to improve the image quality of an object by removing the ring artifacts and investigate the efficiency of this process with tomographic images of a dried Tenebrio molitor. In this method, before the tomographic reconstruction, ring artifacts were identified and located in the sinograms as line artifacts. Then, the identified line artifacts were corrected as single point noise via image processing of the original projections. Eventually, the corresponding line artifacts were removed, resulting in reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed tomographic images. Simulations verified the efficiency of the proposed method. This method was successfully applied for the structural analysis of the insect T. molitor, showing superior performance in reducing ring artifacts in the tomographic image without noticeable loss of structural information.
A synthetic data set was created by incorporating results from previously published papers on antagonistic and synergistic herbicide interactions between two herbicides applied as a tank mixture or sequentially, and then analyzed on the basis of various properties of the herbicides and target plants. Generally, interactions between herbicides were antagonistic more frequently than synergistic. This trend held no matter whether the interacting herbicides were absorbed by the same or different parts of the plant, had the same or different translocating abilities, had the same or different modes of action, and regardless of whether the target plants were annual or perennial plants, or crops or weeds. Antagonistic interactions occurred much more frequently when the target plants were monocot than dicot, and in the Compositae, Gramineae, or Leguminosae than in the Chenopodiaceae or Convolvulaceae families.
The effects of herbicide–adjuvant combinations and times of application on weed density and corn yield were determined in a 3-yr field study. At a given rate and time of application of bentazon/atrazine, Assist and Merge were equally effective adjuvants. Assist would be the adjuvant of choice for bentazon/atrazine rather than Merge because of its currently lower cost. Weed density depended on the rate and time of application of bentazon/atrazine. In general, bentazon/atrazine applied at early stages (7 d after emergence) of the development of corn seedlings or at high or intermediate rate (1.6 or 0.8 kg ai/ha) maintained low weed densities, with a relatively small range of variation over years. Delay in time (14 or 21 d after emergence) or reduction in herbicide rate (0.4 kg ai/ha) increased the risk of high weed pressure, although it was not always associated with yield loss. The best time for the application of postemergence herbicide appears to be a few days prior to the onset of the critical period of weed control.
Two separate experiments were conducted from 1974 through 1980 and from 1976 through 1982 at an experimental farm in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to determine the pattern of temporal and spatial distributions of velvetleaf seedlings from seed produced by uncontrolled plants. For each experiment, a soybean field with no previous record of velvetleaf infestation was selected and planted with four patches of 10 velvetleaf plants. The plants were allowed to grow to reproductive maturity for 1 yr, and the density and spatial distribution of velvetleaf seedlings within the field were mapped over the next 6 yr. Although velvetleaf seedlings emerged each year after seeding, the highest percentage emerged the second year after seeding. Velvetleaf seedlings emerged at locations with or without a seeding plant, but a high density of emerged seedlings was often observed at locations some distance away from the seeding plants. The results suggest that under conventional harvesting methods there may not always be a close spatial relationship between the distribution of parent plants and their offspring, depending on the scale of the land and biotic and abiotic environmental conditions.
Crop rotation is thought to reduce weed density and maintain species diversity, thus preventing the domination of a few problem weeds. Because cropping sequence dictates other agricultural management practices, variations in weed populations between cropping systems may be the direct result of crop rotation, the result of different weed management practices associated with crop rotation, or both. Studies that fail to separate the effects of crop rotation from weed management may generate misleading results. A 10-yr crop rotation study was undertaken to study the dynamics of the standing weed vegetation in Zea mays L., Glycine max L., and Triticum aestivum L. The present paper compared total weed density and diversity between monocultures and rotations under three levels of weed management. Weed management accounted for 37.9% of the variation in total weed density, whereas crop rotation accounted for only 5.5%. Weed density varied between monocultures and rotations in plots where herbicides were applied. The effectiveness of rotations in reducing weed density was dependent upon the crop. Margalef's species richness index (DMG), a measure of diversity, varied among weed management strategies, with 38.4% of the variance attributed to this factor. In the 10th year, when all plots were sown with Z. mays, few cumulative effects of crop rotation were apparent, with two exceptions. In weedy and herbicide-treated plots, weed density was higher on plots cropped with Z. mays the previous year. Also, under these weed management treatments, including a cereal in the crop rotation reduced weed density. Crop rotation, when used in combination with herbicides, provides additional weed control and is therefore an effective tool in integrated weed management.
Field experiments were conducted from 1995 to 1997 to test approaches to managing atrazine-resistant Datura stramonium. Eight weed management programs in a Zea mays and Glycine max rotation were evaluated for their effects on the dynamics of atrazine-resistant and -susceptible D. stramonium populations. Overall D. stramonium density and relative abundance of resistant (R) biotypes were greatly reduced in no-till Secale cereale L. (rye) cover crop management programs without triazine compared to conventional-tillage systems with the application of triazine herbicides. The negative effects of no-till on D. stramonium were greater under a G. max–Z. mays—G. max (SCS) rotation than under a Z. mays–G. max—Z. mays (CSC) rotation. A cropping system involving more G. max phases under no-till reduced both the resistant and susceptible D. stramonium populations. Results from this study support the use of soil management, crop rotation, and negative cross-resistant herbicides to manage atrazine-resistant biotypes.
Field experiments were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to evaluate the efficacy of combined cultural and biological weed control for management of Canada thistle in conservation tillage soybean production. For cultural control, we used a highly weed-competitive soybean variety (cv. ‘Kato’). The biological control agent was the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (PST). The application of PST reduced Canada thistle survivorship, height growth, and seed production, although these reductions were usually less than those resulting from bentazon application. Only bentazon application resulted in significant reduction of biomass of Canada thistle plants that survived all season. These results suggest the value of PST for management of Canada thistle in conservation tillage systems due to its negative effects on survival, growth, and reproduction. However, the weed-competitive soybean variety did not affect Canada thistle performance differently than a less competitive variety used for comparison, and there was no indication of synergy between the effects of the two control methods.
The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy and risk of controlling weeds at reduced herbicide rates under various environmental and biotic conditions, through analysis of published data on the use of below-labeled rates of herbicides. A database was established by extracting information from previously published papers on weed control at below-labeled rates of herbicides in crop production systems over large geographical and temporal scales. The database was then analyzed to evaluate the efficacy and risk of using herbicides at various reduced rates under different management systems. Using below-labeled herbicide rates in conjunction with interrow cultivation is an effective way of reducing herbicide input in agricultural systems while maintaining satisfactory weed control. There are greater opportunities for herbicide reduction using preemergence (PRE) than preplant incorporated (PPI) or postemergence (POST) herbicides, in coarse-textured than in fine-textured soils, and in corn than in soybean or wheat. The success of reducing herbicide rates does not depend on whether the herbicides are applied in conventional or conservation tillage systems or whether they are used with or without adjuvants. The above conclusions are based on studies conducted in experimental fields where weed pressures may be subjectively chosen to be high. Greater potential for herbicide reduction may exist at locations or in cropping systems were weed pressure is low.