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It is unknown how much variation in adult mental health problems is associated with differences between societal/cultural groups, over and above differences between individuals.
To test these relative contributions, a consortium of indigenous researchers collected Adult Self-Report (ASR) ratings from 16 906 18- to 59-year-olds in 28 societies that represented seven culture clusters identified in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral Effectiveness study (e.g. Confucian, Anglo). The ASR is scored on 17 problem scales, plus a personal strengths scale. Hierarchical linear modeling estimated variance accounted for by individual differences (including measurement error), society, and culture cluster. Multi-level analyses of covariance tested age and gender effects.
Across the 17 problem scales, the variance accounted for by individual differences ranged from 80.3% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems to 95.2% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality (mean = 90.7%); by society: 3.2% for DSM-oriented somatic problems to 8.0% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 6.3%); and by culture cluster: 0.0% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality to 11.6% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 3.0%). For strengths, individual differences accounted for 80.8% of variance, societal differences 10.5%, and cultural differences 8.7%. Age and gender had very small effects.
Overall, adults' self-ratings of mental health problems and strengths were associated much more with individual differences than societal/cultural differences, although this varied across scales. These findings support cross-cultural use of standardized measures to assess mental health problems, but urge caution in assessment of personal strengths.
The association between egg consumption and cognitive function is inclusive. We aimed to assess the association between egg consumption and cognitive function in Chinese adults and tested the interaction between egg consumption and Fe intake. The data used were from a nationwide sample (n 4852, age ≥ 55 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey between 1991 and 2006. Assessment of cognitive function was conducted in 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006. Dietary egg intake was obtained by 24-h dietary recalls of 3 consecutive days during home visits between 1991 and 2006. Multivariable mixed linear regression and logistic regression were used. Egg intake was positively associated with global cognitive function. In fully adjusted models, across the quartiles of egg intake the regression coefficients were 0, 0·11 (95 % CI –0·28, 0·51), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·36, 1·22) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·43, 1·41), respectively. There was a significant interaction between egg intake and Fe intake. The association between high egg intake and cognitive function was stronger among those with low Fe intake than those with high Fe intake. In addition, there was a significant interaction between egg consumption and sex, with the association mainly observed in women but not men. Furthermore, compared with non-consumers, those with higher egg consumption (Q4) had the OR of 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·19), 0·84 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·02) for self-reported poor memory and self-reported memory decline, respectively. Higher egg intake is associated with better cognition in Chinese adults among those with low Fe intake.
To examine associations between serum micronutrients and neurobehavioural function and the mediating role of sleep quality in early adolescents.
In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood samples were analysed for Fe and Zn levels. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery were used to assess sleep quality and neurobehavioural function, respectively. The logistic/linear regressions and generalised structural equation modelling were performed to estimate the associations.
In total, 226 adolescents (106 females) from the Jintan Child Cohort study.
Adolescents with low Fe (<75 μg/dl) (OR = 1·29, P = 0·04) and low Zn (<70 μg/dl) (OR = 1·58, P < 0·001) were associated with increased odds for poor sleep quality. Adolescents with low Fe and Zn were associated with fast (Fe: β = –1353·71, P = 0·002, Zn: β = –2262·01, P = 0·02) but less-accurate (Fe: β = –0·97, P = 0·04; Zn: β = –1·76, P = 0·04) performance on non-verbal reasoning task and poor sleep quality partially mediated the associations between low Fe/Zn and non-verbal reasoning (P < 0·05). Additionally, low Fe was associated with a slower reaction on spatial processing task (β = 276·94, P = 0·04), and low Zn was associated with fast (β = –1781·83, P = 0·03), but error-prone performance (β = –1·79, P = 0·04) on spatial processing ability and slower reaction speed (β = 12·82, P = 0·03) on the attention task. We observed similar trends using a cut-off point of 75 μg/dl for low serum Zn, except for the association with attention task speed (P > 0·05).
Fe and Zn deficiencies may possibly be associated with poor sleep and neurobehavioural function among early adolescents. Poor sleep may partially mediate the relationship between micronutrients and neurobehavioural function.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
To review articles on the relationship of dietary and circulating micronutrients with sleep patterns, and to identify issues surrounding implications for future research and public health practice.
A systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched through January 2016.
Both experimental and observational studies were included. However, studies that focused on secondary sleep impairment due to comorbidities were excluded.
Individuals in different age groups, from infants to older adults.
A total of twenty-six articles were selected. In the articles reviewed, researchers generally supported a potential role of micronutrients, particularly Fe and Mg, in the development of sleep stages among infants and in reversing age-related alterations in sleep architecture in older adults. Micronutrient status has also been linked to sleep duration, with sleep duration positively associated with Fe, Zn and Mg levels, and negatively associated with Cu, K and vitamin B12 levels. The mechanisms underlying these relationships include the impact of micronutrients on excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters and the expression of circadian genes.
Although the number of studies on the relationship between micronutrient status and sleep remains low, evidence has emerged that suggests a link between dietary/circulating micronutrients and sleep. Future research is needed to investigate the dose-dependent as well as the longitudinal relationships between micronutrient levels and human sleep across populations, test the interactions among micronutrients on sleep outcomes, and ultimately examine the clinical relevance of micronutrients on sleep health.
This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8–10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8–10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (κ = 0.60–1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (κ ≤ 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ≤ 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications.
Prenatal androgen exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior in adults. It is less clear whether this association holds for childhood externalizing behavior. This study tests the hypothesis that increased prenatal androgen exposure is associated with aggressive behavior and attention problems in childhood. The ratio of the length of the second finger digit relative to the fourth digit, which is a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure, was assessed in 239 male and female fifth grade schoolchildren from Jintan, China, together with parent and teacher ratings of aggression and attention problems. Increased aggression and attention problems were both significantly associated with a lower ratio of the length of the second finger digit relative to the fourth digit ratios in boys but not girls. The effects remained significant after controlling for early adversity. These findings are the first to establish a relationship between an indirect indicator of fetal androgen exposure and any child psychopathology in Chinese children, and the observed effect size in boys was stronger than in male adults in Western studies. The results provide limited cross-cultural support for the importance of prenatal androgen exposure in contributing to the development of externalizing behavior problems in children, and they suggest that such effects may be specific to boys who may be relatively more vulnerable to early prenatal influences.
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