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According to Hamilton's rule, matrilineal-biased investment restrains men in matrilineal societies from maximising their inclusive fitness (the ‘matrilineal puzzle'). A recent hypothesis argues that when women breed communally and share household resources, a man should help his sisters' household, rather than his wife's household, as investment to the later but not the former would be diluted by other unrelated members (Wu et al., 2013). According to this hypothesis, a man is less likely to help on his wife's farm when there are more women reproducing in the wife's household, because on average he would be less related to his wife's household. We used a farm-work observational dataset, that we collected in the matrilineal Mosuo in southwest China, to test this hypothesis. As predicted, high levels of communal breeding by women in his wife's households do predict less effort spent by men on their wife's farm, and communal breeding in men's natal households do not affect whether men help on their natal farms. Thus, communal breeding by women dilutes the inclusive fitness benefits men receive from investment to their wife and children, and may drive the evolution of matrilineal-biased investment by men. These results can help solve the ‘matrilineal puzzle'.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.
Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh.
Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration.
Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context.
Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.
This study aimed at estimating the transmissibility of hepatitis C. The data for hepatitis C cases were collected in six districts in Xiamen City, China from 2004 to 2018. A population-mixed susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was used to fit the data and the parameters of the model were calculated. The basic reproduction number (R0) and the number of newly transmitted cases by a primary case per month (MNI) were adopted to quantitatively assess the transmissibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven curve estimation models were employed to predict the trends of R0 and MNI in the city. The SICR model fits the reported HCV data well (P < 0.01). The median R0 of each district in Xiamen is 0.4059. R0 follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The median MNI of each district in Xiamen is 0.0020. MNI follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The transmissibility of HCV follows a decreasing trend, which reveals that under the current policy for prevention and control, there would be a high feasibility to eliminate the transmission of HCV in the city.
Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
This study attempts to figure out the seasonality of the transmissibility of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). A mathematical model was established to calculate the transmissibility based on the reported data for HFMD in Xiamen City, China from 2014 to 2018. The transmissibility was measured by effective reproduction number (Reff) in order to evaluate the seasonal characteristics of HFMD. A total of 43 659 HFMD cases were reported in Xiamen, for the period 2014 to 2018. The median of annual incidence was 221.87 per 100 000 persons (range: 167.98/100,000–283.34/100 000). The reported data had a great fitting effect with the model (R2 = 0.9212, P < 0.0001), it has been shown that there are two epidemic peaks of HFMD in Xiamen every year. Both incidence and effective reproduction number had seasonal characteristics. The peak of incidence, 1–2 months later than the effective reproduction number, occurred in Summer and Autumn, that is, June and October each year. Both the incidence and transmissibility of HFMD have obvious seasonal characteristics, and two annual epidemic peaks as well. The peak of incidence is 1–2 months later than Reff.
We describe the motion of two freely moving porous spherical particles
located along the axis of a cylindrical tube with background Poiseuille flow
at low Reynolds number. The stream function and a framework based on
cylindrical harmonics are adopted to solve the flow field around the
particles and the flow within the tube, respectively. The two solutions are
employed in an iterated framework using the method of reflections. We first
consider the case of two identical particles, followed by two particles with
different dimensions. In both cases, the drag force coefficients of the
particles are solved as functions of the separation distance between the
particles and the permeability of the particles. The detailed flow field in
the vicinity of the two particles is investigated by plotting the
streamlines and velocity contours. We find that the particle–particle
interaction is dependent on the separation distance, particle sizes and
permeability of the particles. Our analysis reveals that when the
permeability of the particles is large, the streamlines are more parallel
and the particle–particle interaction has less effect on the particle
motion. We further show that a smaller permeability and bigger particle size
generally tend to squeeze the streamlines and velocity contour towards the
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
The ability of silver (Ag)-containing borate bioactive glass (BG) coatings to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti) implants was investigated in vitro and in vivo in a rabbit tibial fracture model. Dense coatings of borate BG (thickness ≈ 20 μm) containing 0, 0.75, and 1.0 wt% Ag2O were prepared by depositing a layer of particles on Ti plates, followed by sintering at 900 °C. The as-prepared coatings had an adhesive strength of 10 ± 1 MPa, and when immersed in an aqueous phosphate (K2HPO4) solution, the coatings converted to hydroxyapatite, releasing Ag+ ions continuously for over 4 wk. After implantation of BG-coated Ti constructs in a rabbit tibial fracture model and of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis, the BG coating doped with 1.0 wt% Ag2O was most effective for the simultaneous eradication of the infection and fracture fixation. Implants coated with Ag-containing BG coatings could provide an approach for reducing implant-related bone infection.
Bulk production of iron nanowire inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from iron phthalocyanine (FePc) polymer under 800 °C is presented for the first time. The bis-phthalonitrile was firstly reacted with iron nanoparticles to produce iron phthalonitrile oligomer, and heat treatments made the formation of CNTs occurred during the carbonization process of FePc polymer at ambient pressure in nitro atmosphere under 800 °C. The iron nanowire inside carbon tubes from the metal Pc polymer possessed excellent electromagnetic loss and magnetic loss properties.
Based on conserved homologous amino-acid sequences of the Gq protein α subunit in arthropods, a pair of degenerate primers were designed to amplify the gene from the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae), using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and (3′/5′)-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3′/5′ RACE) techniques. A Gqα protein was obtained from the alate adult aphids. The open reading-frame was 1062 bp, encoding 352 amino-acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 40.8 kDa. The cDNA sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession no. EF638906. The deduced amino-acid sequence of Gqα shared a high identity (≥82.17%) with reported Gqα from other insects and even vertebrates, and had the typical characteristics of Gqα protein. In order to explore the function of the Gqα gene, a eukaryotic expressional system (baculovirus expression vector system, BEVS) was constructed by TOPO and Gateway techniques. After the recombinant reaction occurring between pUC-Gqα and the Gateway-adapted baculovirus DNA from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), the construct recombinant viruses containing V5-His6Gqα were transfected singly into the insect cell line of Tn-5B1-4. After collecting the infected cell, detection was conducted by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. The result showed that the system comprising recombinant baculovirus and Tn could express Gqα protein successfully.
Many lacustrine chronology records suffer from radiocarbon reservoir effects. A continuous, accurate varve chronology, in conjunction with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, was used to determine the age of lacustrine sediment and to quantify the past 14C reservoir effect in Sugan Lake (China). Reservoir age varied from 4340 to 2590 yr due to 14C-depleted water in the late Holocene. However, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), 14C reservoir age was relatively stable. According to this study, 14C reservoir age in the late Holocene may be driven by hydrological and climatic changes of this period. Therefore, special caution should be paid to the correction of the 14C reservoir effect by a unique 14C reservoir age in paleoclimatic and paleolimnological study of northwest China.
Silicon nitride films are grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamido)silicon, Si(NMe2)4, and ammonia precursors at substrate temperatures of 200-400 °C. Backscattering spectrometry shows that the films are close to stoichiometric. Depth profiling by Auger electron spectroscopy shows uniform composition and no oxygen or carbon contamination in the bulk. The films are featureless by scanning electron microscopy under 100,000X magnification.
Depositions of high quality SiO2 and SnO2 films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe2)4 (M = Si, Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450 °C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 ± 5 atom °. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 Å/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO2 films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm−1. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO2 film deposited at 350°C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO2 films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10−2 to 10−3 Ω cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350°C is crystalline cassitterite with some (101) orientation.
Amorphous germanium nitride thin films are prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamido)germanium, Ge(NMe2)4, and an ammonia plasma at substrate temperatures as low as 190°C with growth rates >250 Å/min. N/Ge ratios in the films are 1.3 and the hydrogen contents are 13 atom %. The hydrogen is present primarily as N-H. The refractive indexes are close to the bulk value of 2.1, and the band gap, estimated from transmission spectra, is 4.8 eV.
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