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The global transition towards diets high in calories has contributed to 2.1 billion people becoming overweight, or obese, which damages male reproduction and harms offspring. Recently, more and more studies have shown that paternal exposure to stress closely affects the health of offspring in an intergenerational and transgenerational way. SET Domain Containing 2 (SETD2), a key epigenetic gene, is highly conserved among species, is a crucial methyltransferase for converting histone 3 lysine 36 dimethylation (H3K36me2) into histone 3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), and plays an important regulator in the response to stress. In this study, we compared patterns of SETD2 expression and the H3K36me3 pattern in pre-implantation embryos derived from normal or obese mice induced by high diet. The results showed that SETD2 mRNA was significantly higher in the high-fat diet (HFD) group than the control diet (CD) group at the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and 16-cell stages, and at the morula and blastocyst stages. The relative levels of H3K36me3 in the HFD group at the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula stage, and blastocyst stage were significantly higher than in the CD group. These results indicated that dietary changes in parental generation (F0) male mice fed a HFD were traceable in SETD2/H3K36me3 in embryos, and that a paternal high-fat diet brings about adverse effects for offspring that might be related to SETD2/H3K36me3, which throws new light on the effect of paternal obesity on offspring from an epigenetic perspective.
Internalising disorders are highly prevalent emotional dysregulations during preadolescence but clinical decision-making is hampered by high heterogeneity. During this period impulsivity represents a major risk factor for psychopathological trajectories and may act on this heterogeneity given the controversial anxiety–impulsivity relationships. However, how impulsivity contributes to the heterogeneous symptomatology, neurobiology, neurocognition and clinical trajectories in preadolescent internalising disorders remains unclear.
The aim was to determine impulsivity-dependent subtypes in preadolescent internalising disorders that demonstrate distinct anxiety–impulsivity relationships, neurobiological, genetic, cognitive and clinical trajectory signatures.
We applied a data-driven strategy to determine impulsivity-related subtypes in 2430 preadolescents with internalising disorders from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were employed to examine subtype-specific signatures of the anxiety–impulsivity relationship, brain morphology, cognition and clinical trajectory from age 10 to 12 years.
We identified two distinct subtypes of patients who internalise with comparably high anxiety yet distinguishable levels of impulsivity, i.e. enhanced (subtype 1) or decreased (subtype 2) compared with control participants. The two subtypes exhibited opposing anxiety–impulsivity relationships: higher anxiety at baseline was associated with higher lack of perseverance in subtype 1 but lower sensation seeking in subtype 2 at baseline/follow-up. Subtype 1 demonstrated thicker prefrontal and temporal cortices, and genes enriched in immune-related diseases and glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Subtype 1 exhibited cognitive deficits and a detrimental trajectory characterised by increasing emotional/behavioural dysregulations and suicide risks during follow-up.
Our results indicate impulsivity-dependent subtypes in preadolescent internalising disorders and unify past controversies about the anxiety–impulsivity interaction. Clinically, individuals with a high-impulsivity subtype exhibit a detrimental trajectory, thus early interventions are warranted.
The neuroanatomical alteration in bipolar II depression (BDII-D) and its associations with inflammation, childhood adversity, and psychiatric symptoms are currently unclear. We hypothesize that neuroanatomical deficits will be related to higher inflammation, greater childhood adversity, and worse psychiatric symptoms in BDII-D.
Voxel- and surface-based morphometry was performed using the CAT toolbox in 150 BDII-D patients and 155 healthy controls (HCs). Partial Pearson correlations followed by multiple comparison correction was used to indicate significant relationships between neuroanatomy and inflammation, childhood adversity, and psychiatric symptoms.
Compared with HCs, the BDII-D group demonstrated significantly smaller gray matter volumes (GMVs) in frontostriatal and fronto-cerebellar area, insula, rectus, and temporal gyrus, while significantly thinner cortices were found in frontal and temporal areas. In BDII-D, smaller GMV in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) was correlated with greater sexual abuse (r = −0.348, q < 0.001) while larger GMV in the right orbital MFG was correlated with greater physical neglect (r = 0.254, q = 0.03). Higher WBC count (r = −0.227, q = 0.015) and IL-6 levels (r = −0.266, q = 0.015) was associated with smaller GMVs in fronto-cerebellar area in BDII-D. Greater positive symptoms was correlated with larger GMVs of the left middle temporal pole (r = 0.245, q = 0.03).
Neuroanatomical alterations in frontostriatal and fronto-cerebellar area, insula, rectus, temporal gyrus volumes, and frontal-temporal thickness may reflect a core pathophysiological mechanism of BDII-D, which are related to inflammation, trauma, and psychiatric symptoms in BDII-D.
Continuous risky decisions refer to decisions that involve trade-offs among options with persistent risks. People can use the probability of occurrence per unit time (e.g., ‘the probability of occurrence is 1% per month’) or the average time of risk occurrence (e.g., ‘the average occurrence time is 100 months’) to represent continuous risky options. In this study, we examined the effect of the presentation format (i.e., the probability of occurrence per unit time vs. the average time of risk occurrence) on continuous risky decisions in the gain domain and further explored the underlying mechanism. In Study 1 (N = 122), we demonstrated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions and the moderating effect of the magnitude of probabilities. Specifically, when the probabilities were relatively low, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, using the average time of risk occurrence to present the continuous risky options led to more risk-averse decisions. However, when the probabilities were relatively high, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, the presentation format of the average time occurrence led to more risk-seeking decisions. In Study 2 (N = 136), we found that the moderating effect of the option probabilities on continuous risky decisions was mediated by the subjective attribute-wise difference judgment. In Study 3 (N = 221), we replicated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions in more natural scenarios. The study offered a deep understanding of the mechanism of continuous risky decision-making, and the results were conducive to further developing theories in relevant fields.
Genetic approaches are increasingly advantageous in characterizing treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). We aimed to identify TRS-associated functional brain proteins, providing a potential pathway for improving psychiatric classification and developing better-tailored therapeutic targets.
TRS-related proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) were conducted on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from CLOZUK and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), which provided TRS individuals (n = 10,501) and non-TRS individuals (n = 20,325), respectively. The reference datasets for the human brain proteome were obtained from ROS/MAP and Banner, with 8,356 and 11,518 proteins collected, respectively. We then performed colocalization analysis and functional enrichment analysis to further explore the biological functions of the proteins identified by PWAS.
In PWAS, two statistically significant proteins were identified using the ROS/MAP and then replicated using the Banner reference dataset, including CPT2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.15 × 10−2 and PPWAS-Banner = 3.38 × 10−3) and APOL2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.49 × 10−3 and PPWAS-Banner = 8.26 × 10−3). Colocalization analysis identified three variants that were causally related to protein expression in the human brain, including CCDC91 (PP4 = 0.981), PRDX1 (PP4 = 0.894), and WARS2 (PP4 = 0.757). We extended PWAS results from gene-based analysis to pathway-based analysis, identifying 14 gene ontology (GO) terms and the only candidate pathway for TRS, metabolic pathways (all P < 0.05).
Our results identified two protein biomarkers, and cautiously support that the pathological mechanism of TRS is linked to lipid oxidation and inflammation, where mitochondria-related functions may play a role.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
One of the most common harmful mites in edible fungi is Histiostoma feroniarum Dufour (Acaridida: Histiostomatidae), a fungivorous astigmatid mite that feeds on hyphae and fruiting bodies, thereby transmitting pathogens. This study examined the effects of seven constant temperatures and 10 types of mushrooms on the growth and development of H. feroniarum, as well as its host preference. Developmental time for the total immature stages was significantly affected by the type of mushroom species, ranging from 4.3 ± 0.4 days (reared on Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis Mou at 28°C) to 17.1 ± 2.3 days (reared on Auricularia polytricha Sacc. at 19°C). The temperature was a major factor in the formation of facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (hypopi). The mite entered the hypopus stage when the temperature dropped to 16°C or rose above 31°C. The growth and development of this mite were significantly influenced by the type of species and variety of mushrooms. Moreover, the fungivorous astigmatid mite preferred to feed on the ‘Wuxiang No. 1’ strain of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler and the ‘Gaowenxiu’ strain of P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., with a shorter development period compared with that of feeding on other strains. These results therefore quantify the effect of host type and temperature on fungivorous astigmatid mite growth and development rates, and provide a reference for applying mushroom cultivar resistance to biological pest control.
Telocyte (TC)—a new type of interstitial cell with long telopodes, can form cellular junctions with various tissues or cells to participate in the regulation of multitudes of physiological activities and diseases. This study aimed to characterize the morphology, molecular features, and potential functions of hormone regulation in Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) testis TCs at different reproductive stages by histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy. During hibernation, TCs were widely distributed in the interstitial tissue. In contrast, during reproductive activity, TCs were noted to be in close proximity with peritubular myoid cells surrounding the seminiferous tubule. Moreover, formed cell–cell junctions were observed between TCs and PTMs. The results of IHC and IF showed that the immunophenotype of testicular TCs in hibernating Chinese soft-shelled turtles is CD34+Vimentin−, while the reproductive telopodes (Tps) show low expression of vimentin. The androgen receptor is expressed in Tps of TCs of testis during hibernation. Our results showed also that TCs in seasonal breeding animals regulate the activity of neighboring cells by releasing extracellular microvesicles (EXMVs), thus influencing the activity of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Consideration of our novel and interesting results indicate that the whole area warrants further research.
We consider the set of elements in a translation of the middle-third Cantor set which can be well approximated by algebraic numbers of bounded degree. A doubling dimensional result is given, which enables one to conclude an upper bound on the dimension of the set in question for a generic translation.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Previously, we provided an evidence that l-Leucine supplementation facilitates growth performance in suckling piglets with normal birth weight. However, it remains hitherto obscure weather breast-fed piglets displaying intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) show a similar effect in response to l-Leucine provision. In this study, 7-d-old sow-reared IUGR piglets were orally administrated with l-Leucine (0, 0·7, 1·4 or 2·1 g/kg BW) twice daily for 2 weeks. Increasing leucine levels hampered the growth performance of suckling IUGR piglets. The average daily gain of IUGR piglets was significantly reduced in 1·4 g/kg BW and 2·1 g/kg BW l-Leucine supplementation groups (P < 0·05). Except for ornithine and glutamine, the plasma concentrations of other amino acids were abated as l-Leucine levels increased (P < 0·05). Leucine supplementation led to reduction in the levels of urea, blood ammonia, blood glucose, TAG and total cholesterol, as well as an elevation in the level of LDL-cholesterol in suckling IUGR piglets (P < 0·05). In addition, 1·4 g/kg BW of l-Leucine enhanced the mRNA expression of ATB0,+, whereas decreased the mRNA abundances of CAT1, y + LAT1, ASCT2 and b0,+AT in the jejunum (P < 0·05). Concomitantly, the jejunum of IUGR piglets in l-Leucine group contains more ATB0,+ and less SNAT2 protein than in the control (P < 0·05). Collectively, l-Leucine supplementation impairs growth performance in breast-fed IUGR piglets, which may be associated with depressed nutritional conditions and alterations in the uptake of amino acids and the expression of amino acid transporters in the small intestine.
Mechanistic studies have suggested that antioxidants have beneficial effects on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to investigate the association between the types and sources of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes and AMD risk in China. A matched case–control study of 260 AMD cases and 260 matched controls was performed. The participants were interviewed for dietary information and potential confounders, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of specific vitamins and carotenoids and their main sources. When comparing the extreme quartiles, the ORs (95 % CI) were 0·30 (0·10, 0·88) for lutein and 0·28 (0·11, 0·74) for β-cryptoxanthin. The associations for other dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes were generally weaker and non-significant. Higher intakes of spinach and egg, which are important sources of lutein, were associated with a reduced odds of AMD. ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme categories were 0·42 (0·20, 0·88) for spinach and 0·52 (95% CI: 0·27, 0·98) for egg. Participants who were in the highest category of both egg intake and spinach intake had a much greater reduced odds of having AMD (OR: 0·23; 95% CI: 0·08, 0·71) than those in the lowest category of egg intake and spinach intake. In conclusion, a higher intake of lutein and lutein-rich foods was associated with a significantly decreased odds of AMD. These findings provide further evidence of the benefits of lutein and lutein-rich foods in the prevention of AMD.
Depression is a debilitating mental disorder that often coexists with anxiety. The genetic mechanisms of depression and anxiety have considerable overlap, and studying depression in non-anxiety samples could help to discover novel gene. We assess the genetic variation of depression in non-anxiety samples, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC).
The GWAS of depression score and self-reported depression were conducted using the UK Biobank samples, comprising 99,178 non-anxiety participants with anxiety score <5 and 86,503 non-anxiety participants without self-reported anxiety, respectively. Replication analysis was then performed using two large-scale GWAS summary data of depression from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). LDSC was finally used to evaluate genetic correlations with 855 health-related traits based on the primary GWAS.
Two genome-wide significant loci for non-anxiety depression were identified: rs139702470 (p = 1.54 × 10−8, OR = 0.29) locate in PIEZO2, and rs6046722 (p = 2.52 × 10−8, OR = 1.09) locate in CFAP61. These associated genes were replicated in two GWAS of depression from PGC, such as rs1040582 (preplication GWAS1 = 0.02, preplication GWAS2 = 2.71 × 10−3) in CFAP61, and rs11661122 (preplication GWAS1 = 8.16 × 10−3, preplication GWAS2 = 8.08 × 10−3) in PIEZO2. LDSC identified 19 traits genetically associated with non-anxiety depression (p < 0.001), such as marital separation/divorce (rg = 0.45, SE = 0.15).
Our findings provide novel clues for understanding of the complex genetic architecture of depression.
Visualizing how a catalyst behaves during chemical reactions using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is crucial for understanding the activity origin and guiding performance optimization. However, the sample drifts as temperature changes during in situ reaction, which weakens the resolution and stability of TEM imaging, blocks insights into the dynamic details of catalytic reaction. Herein, a Thon-ring based sample position measurement (TSPM) was developed to track the sample height variation during in situ TEM observation. Drifting characteristics for three commercially available nanochips were studied, showing large biases in aspects of shifting modes, expansion heights, as well as the thermal conduction hysteresis during rapid heating. Particularly, utilizing the TSPM method, for the first time, the gas layer thickness inside a gas-cell nanoreactor was precisely determined, which varies with reaction temperature and gas pressure in a linear manner with coefficients of ~8 nm/°C and ~50 nm/mbar, respectively. Following drift prediction of TSPM, fast oxidation kinetics of a Ni particle was tracked in real time for 12 s at 500°C. This TSPM method is expected to facilitate the functionality of automatic target tracing for in situ microscopy applications when feedback to hardware control of the microscope.
To set the sleeping mode for the Yutu-2 rover, a visual pose prediction algorithm including terrain reconstruction and pose estimation was first studied. The terrain reconstruction precision is affected by using only the stereo navigation camera (Navcam) images and the rotation angles of the mast. However, the hazard camera (Hazcam) pose is fixed, and an image network was constructed by linking all of the Navcam and Hazcam stereoimages. Then, the Navcam pose was refined based on a multiview block bundle adjustment. The experimental results show that the mean absolute errors of the check points in the proposed algorithm were 10.4 mm over the range of
from 2.0 to 6.1 m, and the proposed algorithm achieved good prediction results for the rover pose (the average differences of the values of the pitch angle and the roll angle were −0.19 degrees and 0.29 degrees, respectively). Under the support of the proposed algorithm, engineers have completed the remote setting of the sleeping mode for Yutu-2 successfully in the Chang’e-4 mission operations.
Thyroid cancer (TC) incidence has increased greatly during the past decades with a few established risk factors, while no study is available that has assessed the association of the Chinese Health Dietary Index (CHDI) with TC. We conducted a 1:1 matched case–control study in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Diet-quality scores were calculated according to CHDI using a validated and reliable FFQ. Conditional logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline analysis were used to reveal potential associations between CHDI score and TC risk. A total of 414 pairs of historically confirmed TC patients and healthy controls were recruited from November 2012 to December 2015. The total score of cases and controls were 67·5 and 72·8, respectively (P < 0·001). The median score of total vegetables, fruit, diary products, dark green and orange vegetables, fish, shellfish and mollusk, soyabean, whole grains, dry bean and tuber in cases was significantly lower than those in controls. Compared with the reference group (≤60 points), the average (60–80 points) and high (≥80 points) levels of the CHDI score were associated with a reduced risk of TC (OR: 0·40, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·63 for 60–80 points; OR: 0·22, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·38 for ≥80 points). In age-stratiﬁed analyses, the favourable association remained signiﬁcant among participants who are younger than 50 years old. Our data suggested that high diet quality as determined by CHDI was associated with lower risk of TC.
The role of neurological proteins in the development of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) remains elusive now. The current study aims to explore the potential genetic correlations of plasma neurological proteins with BD and SCZ.
By using the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of BD and SCZ (including 41,917 BD cases, 11,260 SCZ cases, and 396,091 controls) derived from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium website (PGC) and a recently released GWAS of neurological proteins (including 750 individuals), we performed a linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis to detect the potential genetic correlations between the two common psychiatric disorders and each of the 92 neurological proteins. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis was then applied to assess the bidirectional causal relationship between the neurological proteins identified by LDSC, BD and SCZ.
LDSC analysis identified one neurological protein, NEP, which shows suggestive genetic correlation signals for both BD (coefficient = −0.165, p value = 0.035) and SCZ (coefficient = −0.235, p value = 0.020). However, those association did not remain significant after strict Bonferroni correction. Two sample MR analysis found that there was an association between genetically predicted level of NEP protein, BD (odd ratio [OR] = 0.87, p value = 1.61 × 10−6) and SCZ (OR = 0.90, p value = 4.04 × 10−6). However, in the opposite direction, there is no genetically predicted association between BD, SCZ, and NEP protein level.
This study provided novel clues for understanding the genetic effects of neurological proteins on BD and SCZ.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15 568 adults who were free of liver disease, CVD and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4·2 years of follow-up, we identified 3604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95 % CI) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1·00 (reference) for almost never, 1·04 (0·94, 1·15) for tertile 1, 1·08 (0·99, 1·19) for tertile 2 and 1·11 (1·01, 1·22) for tertile 3, respectively (Pfor trend < 0·05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.